Neolithic Age

History of Denmark between 5000 BC - 1701 BC

Even before the Neolithic period hunting people in Denmark had long had contact with the farming societies in central Europe, but only around 3900 BC the hunters began to till the land and keep animals. Wooded areas were cleared, burnt and replaced with fields of arable crops. Cattle, pigs and sheep appeared as domesticated animals. The big change was that people could produce their own food products. Coastal fishing was still good and therefore the farming population continued for a long time to hunt and fish from the old settlements on the coast.

The farmers’ grave monuments in the form of dolmens and passage graves were constructed all over Denmark. They can be seen still in many places in the Danish landscape. Here you can see the splendid polished flint axes and large collections of amber beads which were offered to the gods in hope of a good harvest. You can also see how the Skarpsalling Pot – Denmark’s most attractive pottery vessel from the Neolithic period – is decorated. Or you can learn more about how daggers, such the one from Hindsgavl, and other flint tools were produced.

Reference: National Museum of Denmark

Popular sites founded between 5000 BC and 1701 BC in Denmark

Kong Humbles Grav

Kong Humbles Grav ("King Humble"s Grave") is one of Langelands most well-known prehistoric dolmens. It is about 55m long and 9m wide. Around the sides of the long barrow there are set of 74-77 kerb stones. The archaeological excavation has revealed c. 4000 years old human bones in the grave. The grave name is misleading, because the King "Humble" is believed to lived in c. 300-400 AD.
Founded: 2000 BC | Location: Humble, Denmark

Kong Asgers Høj

Kong Asgers Høj (King Asgers Mound) is a large passage grave on the island of Møn. It was built in the Late Stone Age (3000 BC - 1500 BC) and has a 10 meters long narrow passage leading into to the grave chamber. The grave chamber is 10 meters long and 2 meters wide and was when in use a common grave. When somebody died the grave was opened, the deceased was buried, and the grave was closed again. Kong Asger ...
Founded: 3000-1500 BC | Location: Stege, Denmark

Rispebjerg

Risbebjerg is an archeological site containing both the remains of a Neolithic sun temple and Iron Age earthworks. Bordered by the Øleådalen valley, the site is marked by Iron Age earthworks consisting of semicircular ramparts 3 metres high and a dry ditch 2 metres deep, dating back some 2,000 years. There are also remains of a number of 5,000-year-old woodhenges, one of which has been recreated with stumps o ...
Founded: 3000 BC | Location: Neksø, Denmark

Grønsalen

Grønsalen or Grønjægers Høj is about 100 metres long and 10 metres wide, which makes it Denmark"s largest long barrow and is widely recognised as one of Europe"s outstanding ancient monuments. The barrow, rising over a metre above the surrounding area, is encircled by 134 large stones. The grave, at the centre, is covered with earth and contains three burial chambers, two of which are ...
Founded: 3500 BC | Location: Askeby, Denmark

Poskaer Stenhus

Poskær Stenhus is Denmark's largest round barrow, dating from the age of Funnelbeaker culture (around 3300 BC). The best view of this monument is from the north approach by the road through the hills of Mols Bjerge. The burial chamber has a diameter of more than 2 metres and a ceiling height of almost 1.8 metres. The chamber is surrounded by 23 kerb stones, some of which are more than 2.5 metres high. In 1859, the owner, ...
Founded: 3300 BC | Location: Knebel, Denmark

Klekkende Høj

Klekkende Høj is a megalithic tomb which dates possibly from the Neolithic Age, ca. 4500 years ago. It one of the best preserved of more than 100 burial mounds on the island. The tomb is a passage grave, which means that the central chamber within the mound is reached by a connecting passage. Klekkende Høj is unusual in that there are two entrance passages running approximately parallel to each other, facing ...
Founded: 3300-3200 BC | Location: Askeby, Denmark

Troldkirken

Troldkirken is a Stone Age megalith (dolmen) with a polygonal chambered mound covered by a capstone and surrounded by forty-eight large stones. The whole monument is some 90 metres long. The name means Church of the Troll in Danish.
Founded: 3500-2800 BC | Location: Nibe, Denmark

Langdos Burial Mound

Langdøs (Langdysse) is the largest bronze age burial mound in Denmark. The burial mound is 175 metres long and was built between 1800 and 1000 BC. The "Langdøs man" was once believed to live in the barrow. Around Easter, pins were placed into the mound by children who then played around it. Part of the barrow has been damaged due to building activities within the city.
Founded: 1800-1000 BC | Location: Aalestrup, Denmark

Featured Historic Landmarks, Sites & Buildings

Historic Site of the week

Royal Palace of Aranjuez

Palacio Real de Aranjuez is a former Spanish royal residence. It was established around the time Philip II of Spain moved the capital from Toledo to Madrid. Aranjuez became one of four seasonal seats of government, occupied during the springtime (from about holy week). Thereafter, the court moved successively to Rascafría, El Escorial and wintered in Madrid. Aranjuez Cultural Landscape is an UNESCO World Heritage Site.

After the Christian conquest, Aranjuez was owned by the Order of Santiago and a palace was built for its Grand Masters where the Royal Palace stands today. When the Catholic Monarchs assumed the office of Grand Master of the Order of Santiago, Aranjuez became part of the Royal estate. This fertile land, located between the Tajo and Jarama Rivers, was converted into the Spanish monarchy's most lavish country retreat: during Spain's Golden Age, Aranjuez became a symbol for the perfection of nature by mortal hands, as El Escorial was for art.

Such excellence was based on strong Renaissance foundations, as Charles V envisaged this inherited estate as a large Italian-inspired villa, a desire continued by Philip II who appointed Juan Bautista de Toledo to design leafy avenues that ran through the gardens and farming land. A series of dams was constructed in the 16th century to control the course of the Tajo River and create a network of irrigation canals.

The splendour of the estate was only enhanced by the Bourbon monarchs, who would spend the whole spring, from Easter to July, at the Palace. Phillip V added new gardens and Ferdinand VI designed a new system of tree-lined streets and created a small village within the estate, which was further developed by Charles III and Charles IV. As Ferdinand VII and Isabella II continued to visit Aranjuez during the spring, the splendour of this site was maintained until 1870.

The Royal Palace, built by Phillip II on the site of the old palace of the Grand Masters of Santiago, was designed by the architect Juan Bautista de Toledo –under whom construction began in 1564– and later Juan Herrera, who only managed to finish half the project. Although glimpses of the original layout still remain, the building itself is more characteristic of the classicism favoured by the Hapsburg monarchs, with alternating white stone and brick. The original design was continued by Phillip V in 1715 but not finished until 1752 under Ferdinand VI. The rectangular layout that Juan Bautista de Toledo had planned, and that took two centuries to complete, was only maintained for 20 years, since in 1775 Charles III added two wings onto the Palace.

Real Casa del Labrador

As the Prince of Asturias, Charles IV was a frequent visitor to the pier pavilions built by Ferdinand VI and grew up playing in the Prince’s Garden. When he became King, he decided to build a new country house at the far end of these gardens, known as the Casa del Labrador (the labourer's house) due to its modest exterior that was designed to heavily contrast the magnificent internal decor. It was built by chief architect Juan de Villanueva and his pupil Isidro González Velázquez, who designed some of the interior spaces. These rooms, developed in various stages until 1808, are the greatest example of the lavish interior decor favoured by this monarch in his palaces and country retreats. Highlights at this Site include the combination of different types of art and the luxurious textiles, in particular the silks from Lyon, as well as wealth of original works on the main floor, where Ferdinand VII added various paintings and landscapes by Brambilla.

King's Garden, the Island Garden, Parterre Garden and the Prince's Garden

Phillip II, a great lover of gardens, paid special attention to this feature of the Aranjuez Palace: during his reign, he maintained both the Island Garden, designed by the architect Juan Bautista de Toledo, and the King's Garden, immediately adjacent to the Palace and whose current layout was designed by Philip IV. The majority of the fountains on this island were commissioned by Phillip IV, while the Bourbons added other features such as the Charles III benches.

Phillip V made two French-style additions to the existing gardens: the Parterre Garden in front of the palace and the extension at the far end of the Island Garden, known as the Little Island, where he installed the Tritons Fountain that was later moved to the Campo del Moro park by Isabella II.

The Prince's Garden owes its name and creation to the son and heir of Charles III who, in the 1770s, began to use Ferdinand VI's old pier for his own enjoyment. He also created a landscaped garden in the Anglo-French style that was in fashion at the time and which was directly influenced by Marie Antoinette's gardens at the Petit Trianon. Both Juan de Villanueva and Pablo Boutelou collaborated in the design of this garden.