The Parish Kirk of Crail was founded in the second half of the twelfth century, though the site appears to have older religious associations. In its first form, it consisted of an unaisled rectangular nave and chancel of Romanesque design.
In the early thirteenth century, a tower was added at the west end and the nave was re-built with arcades of six gothic arches opening to north and south aisles and a new arch opening to the chancel.
From an early period, the church belonged to the Cistercian Nunnery of St. Glare in Haddington, from which it was formally disjoined in 1594.
Crail Kirkyard is recognised as a significant burial ground that carries the evidence of how affluent a trading town Crail was in earlier centuries. It has a significant number of mural monuments, 17 in total, whereas most other Kirkyards in Scotland would have maybe one or two.
A mural monument is a funeral monument built into a wall, usually that of a kirkyard, sometimes that of a building. They were most common in Scotland between 1400 and 1750 and often had an elaborate mixture of sculpture and carving.References:
Roman Walls of Lugo are an exceptional architectural, archaeological and constructive legacy of Roman engineering, dating from the 3rd and 4th centuries AD. The Walls are built of internal and external stone facings of slate with some granite, with a core filling of a conglomerate of slate slabs and worked stone pieces from Roman buildings, interlocked with lime mortar.
Their total length of 2117 m in the shape of an oblong rectangle occupies an area of 1.68 ha. Their height varies between 8 and 10 m, with a width of 4.2 m, reaching 7 m in some specific points. The walls still contain 85 external towers, 10 gates (five of which are original and five that were opened in modern times), four staircases and two ramps providing access to the walkway along the top of the walls, one of which is internal and the other external. Each tower contained access stairs leading from the intervallum to the wall walk of town wall, of which a total of 21 have been discovered to date.
The defences of Lugo are the most complete and best preserved example of Roman military architecture in the Western Roman Empire.
Despite the renovation work carried out, the walls conserve their original layout and the construction features associated with their defensive purpose, with walls, battlements, towers, fortifications, both modern and original gates and stairways, and a moat.
Since they were built, the walls have defined the layout and growth of the city, which was declared a Historical-Artistic Ensemble in 1973, forming a part of it and becoming an emblematic structure that can be freely accessed to walk along. The local inhabitants and visitors alike have used them as an area for enjoyment and as a part of urban life for centuries.
The fortifications were added to UNESCO"s World Heritage List in late 2000 and are a popular tourist attraction.