After the Sweden's defeat in Russo-Swedish War 1741-1743 (also known as the Hats' Russian War) eastern border of Finland was moved to west. Important fortresses of Hamina, Lappeenranta and Savonlinna were left to Russian side of border.
The city of Loviisa was established in 1745 to handle a international commerce in Finland. Planning of the new fortification system started concurrently, because Loviisa was located alongside the strategic road from Vyborg to Turku. The parliament accepted the plan of twin fortresses in 1747: one in Loviisa city to protect the road and another to Svartholma island to defence Loviisa from the sea. Building of the Loviisa fortress started in 1748, but the plans were never completed. The ground was too muddy for heavy stone walls and the Crown had continuous lack of money. Building was interrupted in 1757 and the king Gustav III ordered to stop the construction permanently in 1775. Loviisa fortress didn't see any battle. In the Finnish War 1808-1809 it surrended to Russians without fighting, because people of Loviisa were afraid of the destruction of the city.
Nowadays there remains two completed bastions, Rosen and Ungern. Renovation started in the 1960's and Ungern is mostly renovated. Rosen is still uncompleted and mostly ruined.
Arlington National Cemetery is one of the most famous cemeteries in the world. The United States military cemetery was established during the Civil War on the grounds of Arlington House, which had been the estate of the family of Confederate general Robert E. Lee"s wife Mary Anna Lee. On June 15, 1864, the Arlington House property and 200 acres of surrounding land were designated as a military cemetery as Quartermaster General Montgomery C. Meigs wanted to ensure that Lee could not return to the site.
Today the cemetery is the final resting place for more than 300,000 veterans died in every American conflict, from the Revolutionary War to Iraq and Afghanistan.
The first soldier to be buried in Arlington was Private William Henry Christman of Pennsylvania on May 13, 1864. The most famous people buried to Arlington are Presidents William Howard Taft and John F. Kennedy. Also Kennedy"s two brothers, Senator Robert F. Kennedy and Senator Edward 'Ted' Kennedy, and General of the Armies John J. Pershing are buried there.