The Acropolis of Rhodes dates from the Classical Greek period (5th–3rd century BC) and is located approximately 3 kilometers from the centre of the city of Rhodes. The partially reconstructed part of the site consists of the Temple of Apollo (also, as alternatives Athena Polias and Zeus Polieus) below which is a stadium and a small theatre.
In 408 BC, towards the end of the Peloponnesian War, three of the island's ancient cities merged to build an entirely new one – the city of Rhodes – on a site in the Ialysia region of the island. Admired for its beauty and luxury, the city flourished. After weathering a siege by Demetrios Poliorketes (the besieger) in 305–303 BC, Rhodes rallied and built the Colossus of Rhodes, a massive statue of the sun god Helios, to whom Rhodes is linked in Greek mythology. The Colossus is known as one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.
Following the great earthquake in 227 BC, which toppled the enormous harbor statue and devastated the city, Rhodes was rebuilt. It was later raided by Cassius in 42 BC and never recovered.
The Acropolis is situated on the highest part of the city. The monuments were built on stepped terraces, with substantial retaining walls.
Located at the northern extreme of the Acropolis in an east-west orientation, the Temple of Athena Polias and Zeus Polieus was dominated by Doric columned porticos on all sides and originally housed the written treaties the Rhodians held with other states. The temple was bounded by a stoa to the east.
Smaller than the Temple of Athena Polias and Zeus Polieus, Temple of Pythian Apollo boasts a similar east-west orientation but is located on the southern end, just west of a large rectangular terrace. Part of the northeast side of this porous peripteral temple has been restored.
Located on the southeast side of the hill, the 210-metre north-south Stadium was initially restored by the Italians. Its surviving features include the sphendone (rounded end with turning post), proedries (officials' seats), and some of the spectator seating. The starting apparatus used in the athletic events has also been preserved. Athletic events of the Haleion Games, honoring Helios, were held here.References:
The Odeon of Herodes Atticus is a stone theatre structure located on the southwest slope of the Acropolis of Athens. It was built in 161 AD by the Athenian magnate Herodes Atticus in memory of his wife, Aspasia Annia Regilla. It was originally a steep-sloped theater with a three-story stone front wall and a wooden roof made of expensive cedar of Lebanon timber. It was used as a venue for music concerts with a capacity of 5,000. It lasted intact until it was destroyed and left in ruins by the Heruli in 267 AD.
The audience stands and the orchestra (stage) were restored using Pentelic marble in the 1950s. Since then it has been the main venue of the Athens Festival, which runs from May through October each year, featuring a variety of acclaimed Greek as well as International performances.