The Acropolis of Rhodes dates from the Classical Greek period (5th–3rd century BC) and is located approximately 3 kilometers from the centre of the city of Rhodes. The partially reconstructed part of the site consists of the Temple of Apollo (also, as alternatives Athena Polias and Zeus Polieus) below which is a stadium and a small theatre.
In 408 BC, towards the end of the Peloponnesian War, three of the island's ancient cities merged to build an entirely new one – the city of Rhodes – on a site in the Ialysia region of the island. Admired for its beauty and luxury, the city flourished. After weathering a siege by Demetrios Poliorketes (the besieger) in 305–303 BC, Rhodes rallied and built the Colossus of Rhodes, a massive statue of the sun god Helios, to whom Rhodes is linked in Greek mythology. The Colossus is known as one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.
Following the great earthquake in 227 BC, which toppled the enormous harbor statue and devastated the city, Rhodes was rebuilt. It was later raided by Cassius in 42 BC and never recovered.
The Acropolis is situated on the highest part of the city. The monuments were built on stepped terraces, with substantial retaining walls.
Located at the northern extreme of the Acropolis in an east-west orientation, the Temple of Athena Polias and Zeus Polieus was dominated by Doric columned porticos on all sides and originally housed the written treaties the Rhodians held with other states. The temple was bounded by a stoa to the east.
Smaller than the Temple of Athena Polias and Zeus Polieus, Temple of Pythian Apollo boasts a similar east-west orientation but is located on the southern end, just west of a large rectangular terrace. Part of the northeast side of this porous peripteral temple has been restored.
Located on the southeast side of the hill, the 210-metre north-south Stadium was initially restored by the Italians. Its surviving features include the sphendone (rounded end with turning post), proedries (officials' seats), and some of the spectator seating. The starting apparatus used in the athletic events has also been preserved. Athletic events of the Haleion Games, honoring Helios, were held here.References:
Roman Walls of Lugo are an exceptional architectural, archaeological and constructive legacy of Roman engineering, dating from the 3rd and 4th centuries AD. The Walls are built of internal and external stone facings of slate with some granite, with a core filling of a conglomerate of slate slabs and worked stone pieces from Roman buildings, interlocked with lime mortar.
Their total length of 2117 m in the shape of an oblong rectangle occupies an area of 1.68 ha. Their height varies between 8 and 10 m, with a width of 4.2 m, reaching 7 m in some specific points. The walls still contain 85 external towers, 10 gates (five of which are original and five that were opened in modern times), four staircases and two ramps providing access to the walkway along the top of the walls, one of which is internal and the other external. Each tower contained access stairs leading from the intervallum to the wall walk of town wall, of which a total of 21 have been discovered to date.
The defences of Lugo are the most complete and best preserved example of Roman military architecture in the Western Roman Empire.
Despite the renovation work carried out, the walls conserve their original layout and the construction features associated with their defensive purpose, with walls, battlements, towers, fortifications, both modern and original gates and stairways, and a moat.
Since they were built, the walls have defined the layout and growth of the city, which was declared a Historical-Artistic Ensemble in 1973, forming a part of it and becoming an emblematic structure that can be freely accessed to walk along. The local inhabitants and visitors alike have used them as an area for enjoyment and as a part of urban life for centuries.
The fortifications were added to UNESCO"s World Heritage List in late 2000 and are a popular tourist attraction.