Sachsenburg Castle rises near Frankenberg, Saxony, on a rock over the Zschopau river. The castle complex, which was built in the early 13th century at the latest, was converted into a castle in the 1480s. The complex is one of the few examples of a completely preserved late Gothic residential palace in Saxony.
The Lords of Sachsenburg were mentioned for the first time in 1197. It is uncertain whether a castle already existed at that time. Around 1210/30, however, the existence of the castle can be reliably proven on the basis of archaeological finds. The builders were evidently the Lords of Mildenstein.
Since 1610 the castle served as an administrative building for the Electoral Saxon Office of Sachsenburg with Frankenberg. During the Thirty Years War , the first and second outer bailey were destroyed and the castle looted.
From 1864 the castle was used as custody for young female prisoners and in 1867 a penal and correctional institution was established here. The property was only reserved for prisoners until 1926, and from 1914 onwards there were prisoners of war (Russians, including interned academics and students of the Freiberg Mining Academy , Englishmen, Serbs).
Along with Lichtenburg, Sachsenburg was among the first concentration camps to be built by the Nazis, and operated by the SS from 1933 to 1937. The camp was an abandoned four-story textile mill which was renovated in May 1933 to serve as a 'protective custody' facility for dissidents such as Jehovah's Witnesses, who opposed the Nazi regime.
Today the castle restoration is in progress.References:
First record of Kastelholma (or Kastelholm) castle is from the year 1388 in the contract of Queen Margaret I of Denmark, where a large portion of the inheritance of Bo Jonsson Grip was given to the queen. The heyday of the castle was in the 15th and 16th centuries when it was administrated by Danish and Swedish kings and stewards of the realms. Kastelhoma was expanded and enhanced several times.
In the end of 16th century castle was owned by the previous queen Catherine Jagellon (Stenbock), an enemy of the King of Sweden Eric XIV. King Eric conquered Kastelholma in 1599 and all defending officers were taken to Turku and executed. The castle was damaged under the siege and it took 30 years to renovate it.
In 1634 Åland was joined with the County of Åbo and Björneborg and Kastelholma lost its administrative status.