The Vieille Bourse (Old Stock Exchange) in Lille is the former building of the Lille Chamber of Commerce and Industry. It is located between the Grand Place and the Place du Théâtre and is considered to be one of the landmarks of the city centre. The building is in the form of a quadrangle, made up of 24 identical houses enclosing an inner courtyard, which serves as a meeting place for booksellers, florists, chess players and tourists. This site is served by the Rihour metro station.
In 1651 the City of Lille obtained from Philip IV of Spain the authorization to build 'a bourse for the use of merchants that will be surrounded and encloses 24 houses'. The city sold the 24 plots of land around the market square to traders, and supported the construction of the galleries, paving the inner courtyard, and the four entryways. The building was constructed between 1652 and 1653 under the direction of Julien Destrée, in order to offer to the merchants a majestic monument comparable to that of Antwerp. The architecture is typical Flemish Renaissance of the 17th century.
The Lille Stock Exchange opened in 1861 in the building. It was not a very liquid exchange: only 3.4% of the capital changed hands each year.
In 1921, the new stock change building (the Chamber of Commerce) opened, and the Vielle Bourse was vacated. It was classified as a historical monument the same year, and renamed to Vieille Bourse (Old Stock Exchange).References:
The Petersberg Citadel is one of the largest extant early-modern citadels in Europe and covers the whole north-western part of the Erfurt city centre. It was built after 1665 on Petersberg hill and was in military use until 1963. It dates from a time when Erfurt was ruled by the Electors of Mainz and is a unique example of the European style of fortress construction. Beneath the citadel is an underground maze of passageways that can be visited on guided tours organised by Erfurt Tourist Office.
The citadel was originally built on the site of a medieval Benedictine Monastery and the earliest parts of the complex date from the 12th century. Erfurt has also been ruled by Sweden, Prussia, Napoleon, the German Empire, the Nazis, and post-World War II Soviet occupying forces, and it was part of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany). All of these regimes used Petersberg Citadel and had an influence on its development. The baroque fortress was in military use until 1963. Since German reunification in 1990, the citadel has undergone significant restoration and it is now open to the public as a historic site.