The château du Falkenstein is a ruined castle in the commune of Philippsbourg in the Moselle département. This semi-troglodyte castle dominates the Zinsel valley. The castle, built by Count Peter of Lützelburg, is mentioned for the first time in 1127. It was intended to protect the possessions of the Count in the Forêt Sainte (Holy Forest) of Haguenau.
In 1150, Renaud, son of Peter, died without heir. The castle was therefore shared between Folmar of Sarrewerden and the Hohenstaufen family. Jacob of Falkenstein appears as a witness in a charter signed at Haguenau in 1205 and, in 1316, Gottfried, Conrad, Heinrich and Jacob of Falkenstein made peace with the city of Strasbourg. A paix castrale (castle peace) was signed in 1335, dividing the castle in three shares along the transverse walls.
In 1419, Jacob of Finstingen made himself Lord of Falkenstein seeing that he was the occupier on behalf of the Sarrewerdens. In 1474 Wilhelm of Falkenstein died, whereupon his sons Godfrey, Ortlieb and William inherited the castle and made an agreement to divide the property among themselves, agreeing that no part could be ceded, even to another member of the family, without the consent of the other shareholders. The shareholder in residence in 1479 attempted to sell the castle to the counts of Zweibrücken-Bitsch, and in 1482 a conflict blew up over non-respect of the agreement between the members of the family. When the dispute was finally settled in 1487, with the castle in the hands of Wilhelm of Falkenstein, he dedicated a new chapel in the castle.
The Falkensteins were sole masters of the castle in 1515 and the modernisation begun by Balthasar was continued by his son. In 1564, Philipp IV (1538-1590), Count of Hanau-Lichtenberg, bought the castle from Balthasar's children and grandchildren and, some months later, it was completely destroyed by fire and never rebuilt.
In 1570, a part of the ruined castle was still inhabited by a forester employed by the Count of Hanau-Lichtenberg. Between 1570 and 1605, a conflict erupted between the Hanau-Lichtenbergs and the Duchy of Lorraine, at the end of which the Falkensteins returned to Hanau-Lichtenberg in 1606.
In 1623, the castle was ruined by the troops of Ernst von Mansfeld during the Thirty Years' War, to such an extent that the foresters could no longer live there. The final destruction of the castle was carried out by French troops.
The castle's sandstone has been shaped by wind and bad weather.
Of note are the entrance, the remains of the keep, the cave rooms and the well tower, which had three functions: to protect the well, to defend the surrounding area and, on the top floor, to provide habitation. Nearby are the ruins of the château de Helfenstein.References:
The Basilica of Santa Maria in Trastevere is one of the oldest churches of Rome. The basic floor plan and wall structure of the church date back to the 340s, and much of the structure to 1140-43. The first sanctuary was built in 221 and 227 by Pope Callixtus I and later completed by Pope Julius I.
The inscription on the episcopal throne states that this is the first church in Rome dedicated to Mary, mother of Jesus, although some claim that privilege belongs to the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore. A Christian house-church was founded here about 220 by Pope Saint Callixtus I (217-222) on the site of the Taberna meritoria, a refuge for retired soldiers. The area was made available for Christian use by Emperor Alexander Severus when he settled a dispute between the Christians and tavern-keepers.
The church underwent two restorations in the fifth and eighth centuries and in 1140-43 it was re-erected on its old foundations under Pope Innocent II.