The Linköping Cathedral is the seat for the bishop in the Church of Sweden Diocese of Linköping. The present church is about 800 years old. However, its history starts in the 11th century, with a wooden church being built. Later, around 1120, a stone church was being constructed; a basilica of about half the size of the present building.
Around 1230 it became necessary to construct a larger church, as the basilica had become too small. The church was extended to the East, with a new choir and transept. These parts remain as part of the present church. The current altarpiece is also from that period. The next extension of the church was made following the coronation of King Valdemar, in 1251. Now, the main building was constructed, and the church received its current length. Its length is 110 meters and the height of the tower is 107 metres.
Between 1408–1420 the chapels were constructed in Gothic architecture, with large windows and star shaped vaults. The chapels were named after Saint Andreas (later renamed into Saint Mary), St. Nicolaus and St. Thomas.
Fire damaged the roof of the church in 1546 and 1567. The tower was rebuilt between 1747–1758 and again between 1877–1886 by Helgo Zettervall. However, a restoration was made in 1967, restoring the shape of the 17th century roof. The roof is covered with copper plating. The corrosion has created the green color.References:
The Externsteine (Extern stones) is a distinctive sandstone rock formation located in the Teutoburg Forest, near the town of Horn-Bad Meinberg. The formation is a tor consisting of several tall, narrow columns of rock which rise abruptly from the surrounding wooded hills. Archaeological excavations have yielded some Upper Paleolithic stone tools dating to about 10,700 BC from 9,600 BC.
In a popular tradition going back to an idea proposed to Hermann Hamelmann in 1564, the Externsteine are identified as a sacred site of the pagan Saxons, and the location of the Irminsul (sacral pillar-like object in German paganism) idol reportedly destroyed by Charlemagne; there is however no archaeological evidence that would confirm the site's use during the relevant period.
The stones were used as the site of a hermitage in the Middle Ages, and by at least the high medieval period were the site of a Christian chapel. The Externsteine relief is a medieval depiction of the Descent from the Cross. It remains controversial whether the site was already used for Christian worship in the 8th to early 10th centuries.
The Externsteine gained prominence when Völkisch and nationalistic scholars took an interest in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. This interest peaked under the Nazi regime, when the Externsteine became a focus of nazi propaganda. Today, they remain a popular tourist destination and also continue to attract Neo-Pagans and Neo-Nazis.