Circus Ciniselli was the first stone-built circus in Russia. The building, which still stands, was opened on 26 December 1877, with a large stage (13 meters in diameter) and stables (housing 150 horses). The architect was Vasily Kenel. The Italian circus performer Gaetano Ciniselli (1815-1881) first visited Saint Petersburg in 1847, as part of the troupe of Alessandro Guerra. He returned to Russia in 1869, this time working with Carl-Magnus Hinne, his brother-in-law, in his circuses in Moscow and Saint Petersbrug. Ciniselli settled in Russia, and inherited Hinne's circuses in 1875.
The Ciniselli family managed the circus until 1921, when they emigrated. They would often lease the building to stage high-profile entertainment events, such as the World Wrestling Championship in 1898 and Max Reinhardt's production of Oedipus Rex which featured Alexander Moissi in 1911. In 1918 Iury Iurev revived the play using the original set. This was followed by the production of Macbeth featuring Maria Andreeva and Feodor Chaliapin.
Two halls in the building house the first circus museum in the world, opened in 1928.References:
Kristiansten Fortress was built to protect the city against attack from the east. Construction was finished in 1685. General Johan Caspar von Cicignon, who was chief inspector of kuks fortifications, was responsible for the new town plan of Trondheim after the great fire of 18 April 1681. He also made the plans for the construction of Kristiansten Fortress.
The fortress was built during the period from 1682 to 1684 and strengthened to a complete defence fortification in 1691 by building an advanced post Kristiandsands bastion in the east and in 1695 with the now vanished Møllenberg skanse by the river Nidelven. These fortifications were encircled by a continuous palisade and thereby connected to the fortified city. In 1750 the fortress was modernized with new bastions and casemates to protect against mortar artillery.