Catherine Palace

Pushkin, Russia

The Catherine Palace is a Rococo style palace which was used as a summer residence of the Russian tsars. The residence originated in 1717, when Catherine I of Russia engaged the German architect Johann-Friedrich Braunstein to construct a summer palace for her pleasure. In 1733, Empress Anna commissioned Mikhail Zemtsov and Andrei Kvasov to expand the Catherine Palace. Empress Elizabeth, however, found her mother's residence outdated and incommodious and in May 1752 asked her court architect Bartolomeo Rastrelli to demolish the old structure and replace it with a much grander edifice in a flamboyant Rococo style. Construction lasted for four years, and on 30 July 1756 the architect presented the brand-new 325-meter-long palace to the Empress, her dazed courtiers, and stupefied foreign ambassadors.

During Elizabeth's lifetime, the palace was famed for its lavish exterior. More than 100 kilograms of gold were used to gild the sophisticated stucco façade and numerous statues erected on the roof. In front of the palace a great formal garden was laid out. It centres on the azure-and-white Hermitage Pavilion near the lake, designed by Mikhail Zemtsov in 1744, remodelled by Francesco Bartolomeo Rastrelli in 1749 and formerly crowned by a grand-gilded sculpture representing The Rape of Persephone. The interior of the pavilion featured dining tables withdumbwaiter mechanisms. The grand entrance to the palace is flanked by two massive 'circumferences', also in the Rococo style. A delicate cast-iron grille separates the complex from the town of Tsarskoe Selo.

Although the palace is popularly associated with Catherine the Great, she actually regarded its 'whipped cream' architecture as old-fashioned. When she ascended to the throne, a number of statues in the park were being covered with gold, in accordance with the last wish of Empress Elizabeth, yet the new monarch had all the works suspended upon being informed about the expense.

In order to gratify her passion for antique and Neoclassical art, Catherine employed the Scottish architect Charles Cameron, who not only refurbished the interior of one wing in the Neo-Palladian style then in vogue, but also constructed the personal apartments of the Empress, a rather modest Greek Revival structure known as the Agate Rooms and situated to the left of the grand palace. Noted for their elaborate jasper decor, the rooms were designed so as to be connected to the Hanging Gardens, the Cold Baths, and the Cameron Gallery (still housing a collection of bronze statuary) — three Neoclassical edifices constructed to Cameron's designs. According to Catherine's wishes, many remarkable structures were erected for her amusement in the Catherine Park. These include the Dutch Admiralty, Creaking Pagoda, Chesme Column, Rumyantsev Obelisk, and Marble Bridge.

Upon Catherine's death in 1796, the palace was abandoned in favour of Pavlovsk Palace. Subsequent monarchs preferred to reside in the nearby Alexander Palaceand, with only two exceptions, refrained from making new additions to the Catherine Palace, regarding it as a splendid monument to Elizabeth's wealth and Catherine II's glory. In 1817 Alexander I engaged Vasily Stasov to refurbish some interiors of his grandmother's residence in the Empire style. Twenty years later, the magnificent Stasov Staircase was constructed to replace the old circular staircase leading to the Palace Chapel. Unfortunately, most of Stasov's interiors — specifically those dating from the reign of Nicholas I — have not been restored after the destruction caused by the Germans during World War II.

When the German forces retreated after the siege of Leningrad, they had the residence intentionally destroyed, leaving only the hollow shell of the palace behind. Prior to World War II, the Russian archivists managed to document a fair amount of the interior, which proved of great importance in reconstructing the palace. Catherine Palace is one of St. Petersburg's most popular visitor attractions, and queues in the summer months can be daunting. All visitors are obliged to follow a guided tour, which is in Russian unless otherwise arranged in advance.

References:

Comments

Your name

Website (optional)



Details

Founded: 1717
Category: Palaces, manors and town halls in Russia

Rating

4.7/5 (based on Google user reviews)

User Reviews

gopi k (19 months ago)
Amazing palace located in the outskirts of St. Petersburg. Being winter, the statues in the gardens were boarded up but the palace itself is worth a visit. Was told by out guide that visiting this place in summer months is nicer as you get to enjoy the vast gardens as well. However summer brings large tour groups and it's a long wait to get tickets. Much better if tickets are bought through a guide in advance.
Matteo Sani (2 years ago)
Fantastic place! A must-see if you come to St. Petersburg. Be warned: you will have to stand in a queue in the middle of a thousand Asian visitors. Just be patient and focus on the beautiful rooms and decorations of this top location. The Amber Room alone is worth all the lines! After that, a relaxing walk in the park surrounding the palace will complete a beautiful day trip to one of the most charming places in Russia!
Anuttama Ghosh (2 years ago)
Beautiful decorations and glittering gold designs. The place encourages group trips not individuals and provides no booklets in English, so it is a little difficult to know the anecdotes. Amber room is really beautiful and worth visiting. The staff is not very friendly, and do not provide any information in English. The campus is huge and has a nice lake, can be a good picnic spot. It has a restaurant which makes very tasty Russian food.
Anthony Stevenson (2 years ago)
Five stars are simply not enough to rate this extraordinary palace. What a beauty outside and so much gold inside! Incredible to think that its so extensively restored following near ruin by fire following WWII. So treasured are the highly polished floors that you'll even have to wear 'slippers'!
Ly Mc (2 years ago)
Had lots of fun here. The "tricky" fountains were really fun to watch. Rich with the history of Peter the Great and his family. Lots of beautiful paintings. Of course, there is no air conditioning so it can get hot inside! But the palace grounds are exquisite.
Powered by Google

Featured Historic Landmarks, Sites & Buildings

Historic Site of the week

Hluboká Castle

Hluboká Castle (Schloss Frauenberg) is considered one of the most beautiful castles in the Czech Republic. In the second half of the 13th century, a Gothic castle was built at the site. During its history, the castle was rebuilt several times. It was first expanded during the Renaissance period, then rebuilt into a Baroque castle at the order of Adam Franz von Schwarzenberg in the beginning of the 18th century. It reached its current appearance during the 19th century, when Johann Adolf II von Schwarzenberg ordered the reconstruction of the castle in the romantic style of England's Windsor Castle.

The Schwarzenbergs lived in Hluboká until the end of 1939, when the last owner (Adolph Schwarzenberg) emigrated overseas to escape from the Nazis. The Schwarzenbergs lost all of their Czech property through a special legislative Act, the Lex Schwarzenberg, in 1947.

The original royal castle of Přemysl Otakar II from the second half of the 13th century was rebuilt at the end of the 16th century by the Lords of Hradec. It received its present appearance under Count Jan Adam of Schwarzenberg. According to the English Windsor example, architects Franz Beer and F. Deworetzky built a Romantic Neo-Gothic chateau, surrounded by a 1.9 square kilometres English park here in the years 1841 to 1871. In 1940, the castle was seized from the last owner, Adolph Schwarzenberg by the Gestapo and confiscated by the government of Czechoslovakia after the end of World War II. The castle is open to public. There is a winter garden and riding-hall where the Southern Bohemian gallery exhibitions have been housed since 1956.