The 'Ravelijn op den Zoom' (ravelin) is the last remnant of the fortifications designed by Menno van Coehoorn. The ravelin consists of a island with earthen and stone walls, surrounded by a wide moat. The ravelin is one of the few remaining parts of the extensive fortification system around the city. The fortress was so ingeniously designed that it was assumed that it could not be taken and therefore got the nickname 'La Pucelle' (Virgin). In 1747 the city nevertheless became occupied by French troops.References:
The Château Comtal (Count’s Castle) is a medieval castle within the Cité of Carcassonne, the largest city in Europe with its city walls still intact. The Château Comtal has a strong claim to be called a 'Cathar Castle'. When the Catholic Crusader army arrived in 1209 they first attacked Raymond-Roger Trencavel's castrum at Bèziers and then moved on to his main stronghold at Carcassonne.
The castle with rectangular shape is separated from the city by a deep ditch and defended by two barbicans. There are six towers curtain walls.
The castle was restored in 1853 by the architect Eugène Viollet-le-Duc. It was added to the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites in 1997.