Løgum Abbey was founded in 1173 by Bishop Stefan of Ribe who had previously been at Herrevad Abbey in Skåne, the first Cistercian foundation in Denmark. Løgum was in a sense a daughter house to Herrevad. The abbey was called 'Locus Dei' in Latin, meaning 'God's place' and dedicated to the Virgin Mary.
The new wooden monastery was destroyed by a fire in 1190. Bishop Omer of Ribe encouraged monks from other monasteries to go to Løgum to rebuild the abbey and its church. King Valdemar II gave it several farms to provide it with a steady income. The surviving four-sided abbey complex was constructed of red bricks apparently manufactured on the site in the Gothic style. It was completed during the first decades of the 14th century and consisted of the church, and at least two wings, one for the monks and one for guests and the hospital.
The church and one wing of the conventual buildings have survived to modern times. The church was built as the north range of the abbey precinct in the form of a Latin cross with a nave and two side aisles. Chapels were added down the sides of the nave over time. The building shows the mix of Romanesque and Gothic styles: some arches are rounded Romanesque arches, and others are the characteristic pointed arches of the Gothic style. When the abbey was dissolved during the Reformation the church became the parish church of Løgumkloster and thus survived.
The tower over the transept contains three bells, the oldest, preserved from the original abbey, dating from 1442, cast by an unknown bell maker. The other two bells are relatively recently cast by De Smithske in 1924 and 1925.References:
The Petersberg Citadel is one of the largest extant early-modern citadels in Europe and covers the whole north-western part of the Erfurt city centre. It was built after 1665 on Petersberg hill and was in military use until 1963. It dates from a time when Erfurt was ruled by the Electors of Mainz and is a unique example of the European style of fortress construction. Beneath the citadel is an underground maze of passageways that can be visited on guided tours organised by Erfurt Tourist Office.
The citadel was originally built on the site of a medieval Benedictine Monastery and the earliest parts of the complex date from the 12th century. Erfurt has also been ruled by Sweden, Prussia, Napoleon, the German Empire, the Nazis, and post-World War II Soviet occupying forces, and it was part of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany). All of these regimes used Petersberg Citadel and had an influence on its development. The baroque fortress was in military use until 1963. Since German reunification in 1990, the citadel has undergone significant restoration and it is now open to the public as a historic site.