Tvilum Priory, the latest of the Augustinian monasteries in Denmark, was founded between 1246 and 1249 by Bishop Gunner of Ribe, who had hoped to establish the Augustinians in the cathedral chapter at Ribe, but in vain. After he resigned his bishopric in 1246, he donated all his worldly goods to the monastery at Tvilum, while he himself became aFranciscan friar. The Bishop of Aarhus at about the same time gifted the income of the churches of Gjern and the Ladegård to provide for them. The priory was built on the east bank of the Guden River, at that time an important transportation corridor in central Jutland.
The monastery was constructed as a two-storey rectangular building consisting of four ranges, of which the church formed the north range. The others included the dormitory, hospital, chapter house, storage, and space for the lay brothers who assisted with the day to day work of the monastery. The church was planned as a flat-roofed Romanesquestructure but during construction more modern Gothic vaulting was added. It was built out of hand made bricks. In 1470 the church at Ladegård was demolished, after which the priory church has served also as a parish church up to the present day.
An interesting obligation of the monastery, perhaps in return for royal beneficence, was to provide fresh horses and hounds for royal hunts. The burden became so great that the prior wrote to Christoffer I to complain about the cost of providing the services. The arms of King Valdemar Atterdag were painted on the walls of the church in about 1350 and can still be seen there.
Over time the monastery came into possession of many farms and properties in the area as families donated land in memory of deceased family members, or from the desire to help the church, or as bequests in wills.
The Reformation in Denmark swept Catholic teaching and practice aside as early as 1527, but these far-reaching changes did not reach the isolated hinterlands where Tvilum lay until sometime in 1536, when the crown seized all monastic houses and property in Denmark. Tradition says that the Augustinian canons, who were ordained priests, then becameLutheran pastors. All of the monastery holdings were eventually transferred to Skanderborg Castle, which used the farm income to support the expansion and operations of the castle. The monastic buildings were demolished relatively quickly, but the priory church survived because it was the parish church in a very small town. The pre-Reformation crucifix from the monastery was preserved, as was the fine altarpiece carved in the late 15th century.References:
For centuries, the Astrakhan Kremlin was inapproachable stronghold in the south-eastern border of the Russia. The first construction of the Kremlin began in 1587-1588 under the guidance of I.G. Vorodkov, a lector of Discharge Order. He laid the first wooden fortress with powerful solid walls and towers. The place of construction was chosen on the hill, known as “Rabbit” or “Zayachii” in Russian.
During the reign of Ivan IV The Terrible and Boris Godunov the wooden fortress was rebuilt into a stone one. For the development of Kremlin walls and towers state-owned official masters were headed from Moscow to Astrakhan. For best results executives used the old, but very strong Tatar plinths which were brought from the ruins of the cities of the Golden Horde towns. Stone citadel was built by the type of Moscow Kremlin.
Next two centuries have become relatively calm for the Kremlin. Its buildings were repaired, rebuilt and renewed. However, in the beginning of 20th century after the October Revolution access to the Kremlin was closed. Instead it was transformed as a military post, where groups of Red Guards were formed the Military Revolutionary Committee was placed.
In January 1918 Astrakhan Kremlin was once again in the middle of fateful events, when supporters of Soviet power fought with Astrkhan Cossaks. They attacked The Red Army that was entrenched in the Kremlin, from roofs of nearby buildings. Serious destruction was caused to the Kremlin after this battle. In 1919 the Army was reorganized under the leadership of Kirov to protect the outfall of Volga and to defeat the White Guard troops and foreign interventionists.
Only after the end of the World War II the town opened the access to the Kremlin. At the same time Kremlin ceases to be subject of military purposes. In the mid-20th century significant restoration works were held, due to which many buildings, requiring urgent repairs were saved.
In 1974 the Astrakhan Kremlin became a museum. Nowadays citizens and tourists of Astrakhan have the access to museum exhibits of the lifestyle of the Astrakhan Garrison. Moreover they can see Casual Suits archers and scorers, elements of their weapons and ammunition, the exhibition dedicated to the history of popular uprisings and corporal punishment. In 2011, after the restoration of the kremlin, Guardhouse exposition was opened, which tells about the life of Astrakhan military garrison of the 19th century.
Construction of Assumption Cathedral began in 1699 and lasted almost 12 years. The bell tower was erected in 1710. The exterior of the Cathedral was decorated with molded brick and carved with white stone. Windows and dome heads were framed by columns in the style of Corinthian décor and semicircular arches were filled with paintings with biblical plot. Three of such arches were arranged on each side of the temple.
The cathedral was divided into two floors: the upper church is dedicated to the honor of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin. Tall and light temple was intended for ceremonial worships during warm months. The lower church which is dark lightened and surrounded by the gallery columns.