At the beginning of the 12th century, there was a simple priory on the site of current abbey. Around 1190, Robert, Earl of Leicester founded the Abbey of Fontaine-Guérard. The nuns joined the order of Cîteaux in 1207 as Daughter-abbey of Clairvaux, but did not receive Abbey status until 1253. By this date, the buildings we see here were complete; the church was consecrated in 1218. Sold for the national good, the abbey was then converted as a cotton mill, and then bequeathed in 1937 to the Salvation Army, whose Foundation even now manages the abbey and its restoration.
Fontaine-Guérard Abbey is considered by specialists as one of the finest examples of the Norman Gothic style, the rigor which takes its Cistercian purity. You will discover the nuns' building (chapter house, workroom, and dormitory) and its superb structure, the church, the original chapel modified at the 15th century and the surprising cave cellar. The gardens, including the medicinal one, are currently being restored. Throughout the tourist season, exhibitions and various workshops take place in these building classified Historic Monument, offering you exceptional enjoyment.References:
Goryōkaku (五稜郭) (literally, 'five-point fort') is a star fort in the Japanese city of Hakodate on the island of Hokkaido. The fortress was completed in 1866. It was the main fortress of the short-lived Republic of Ezo.
Goryōkaku was designed in 1855 by Takeda Ayasaburō and Jules Brunet. Their plans was based on the work of the French architect Vauban. The fortress was completed in 1866, two years before the collapse of the Tokugawa Shogunate. It is shaped like a five-pointed star. This allowed for greater numbers of gun emplacements on its walls than a traditional Japanese fortress, and reduced the number of blind spots where a cannon could not fire.
The fort was built by the Tokugawa shogunate to protect the Tsugaru Strait against a possible invasion by the Meiji government.
Goryōkaku is famous as the site of the last battle of the Boshin War.