After the creation of the Zwin channel during a violent storm in 1134, a settlement known as Lamminsvliet grew up at the place where it met the Scheldt estuary. It was first fortified towards the end of the 14th century, at which time the town began to be known by its current name, Sluis. These fortifications included a flooded ditch'running around the town, three gates and a large castle on the north side. Sluis prospered from the trade enjoyed by the Flemish city of Bruges in this time. All shipping to and from Bruges had pass through the Zwin channel and hence past Sluis.
At the beginning of the 80 Years War, Sluis had some rudimentary artillery defences, notably two arrow-headed bastions' guarding the entrance to the inner harbour, which were constructed after a failed attack by the sea beggars'in 1572. Sluis joined the revolt in 1578 and in 1585 it was garrisoned by the Earl of Leicester's English troops (England was helping the rebels), but the town still fell to the Spanish in 1587 after a long siege.
In 1604 Prince Maurice, in an attempt to relieve the siege of Ostend, landed in Flanders with a large army and captured Sluis. The town was of strategic value to the States because it protected Zealand to the north and provided a bridgehead from which attacks could be made in the future. In addition to this, being in possession of Sluis helped them to secure the Scheldt, which was the approach to Antwerp and gave them control of the Zwin, which was the route to Bruges. The fortifications of Sluis were reinforced as quickly as possible to guard against a possible counterattack from the south.
Over the next months Sluis was comprehensively fortified according to the latest military engineering theory, Old Dutch School of Fortification. The new fortifications consisted of a well-proportioned bastioned'trace protecting the landward side of the town. There were 6 bastions and 2 demi-bastions'where the fortifications met the harbour. A continuous false bray'ran at the foot of the ramparts. The medieval castle at the northern end of the fortifications was retained. Although its defences were obselete, its situation at the angle between the harbour and the Zwin meant that it was not in a position to face an attack and did not constitute a weakness to the fortress.
The west side of the town, which faces the old harbour, was fortified with small bastions. There were a number of works on the western side of the harbour, protecting the landward approach, including ahornwork'and some small bastions, fronted with flooded ditches. All these works on the far side of the harbour were open to the rear, so that they could not be used against the town if they were captured by an attacker. All the new fortifications were earthworks (as was standard with the Old Dutch School) so they could be constructed relatively quickly using unskilled labour.
This was just as well, since a Spanish force attacked Sluis in 1606, almost taking the Oostpoort (East Gate) in a surprise-attack at night. The Spanish returned in 1621 and again 1622 but each time they failed to retake the town. Sluis was firmly in the hands of the States. To counter the Dutch presence at Sluis, the Spanish fortified their own positions by building a number of forts and fortified lines. In 1622 Fort St Fredrick was built less than 4.8km from Sluis and a line of redoubts'called the Lines of Vuile Vaart linked this fort to another, Fort Isabella to the north of Sluis.
This line was replaced in 1632 by a new set of lines, the Lines of Fontaine-Cantelmo, consisting of an earthen rampart with redans. These took a different route, keeping farther from the town of Sluis - perhaps the earlier lines had been a little too close for comfort. In 1672 during the Dutch Wars'Sluis and the nearby fortress of Aardenburg resisted French attacks. From 1699-1702 the fortifications were strengthened by the Dutch engineer Menno van Coehoorn, who built demi-lunes'and counterguards. These modifications increased the depth of the defences by placing the covered way'at a greater distance from the main wall and placing more obstacles in the ditch that an attacker would have to capture. The castle was left in place, but its towers were lowered.
During the War of the Spanish Succession' Sluis was captured by the French, who occupied the Spanish Netherlands and went to war with the Dutch, Austrians and English. The French (or rather, an unknown engineer) drew up plans for strengthening Sluis by building recessed flankers in the bastions (effectively turning them into arrow-headed bastions) and with a squarecitadel'around the castle. However, the French did not occupy Sluis for long and no work was carried out.
Sluis was captured by the French troops in 1747 and again in 1794. The second time Sluis surrendered to the French with hardly a shot fired, although not before the castle had been damaged. In 1816 the fortifications were declassified and the remains of the castle were demolished in 1820.References:
The Mosque–Cathedral of Córdoba, also known as the Great Mosque of Córdoba and the Mezquita is regarded as one of the most accomplished monuments of Moorish architecture.
According to a traditional account, a small Visigoth church, the Catholic Basilica of Saint Vincent of Lérins, originally stood on the site. In 784 Abd al-Rahman I ordered construction of the Great Mosque, which was considerably expanded by later Muslim rulers. The mosque underwent numerous subsequent changes: Abd al-Rahman II ordered a new minaret, while in 961 Al-Hakam II enlarged the building and enriched the Mihrab. The last of such reforms was carried out by Almanzor in 987. It was connected to the Caliph"s palace by a raised walkway, mosques within the palaces being the tradition for previous Islamic rulers – as well as Christian Kings who built their palaces adjacent to churches. The Mezquita reached its current dimensions in 987 with the completion of the outer naves and courtyard.
In 1236, Córdoba was conquered by King Ferdinand III of Castile, and the centre of the mosque was converted into a Catholic cathedral. Alfonso X oversaw the construction of the Villaviciosa Chapel and the Royal Chapel within the mosque. The kings who followed added further Christian features, such as King Henry II rebuilding the chapel in the 14th century. The minaret of the mosque was also converted to the bell tower of the cathedral. It was adorned with Santiago de Compostela"s captured cathedral bells. Following a windstorm in 1589, the former minaret was further reinforced by encasing it within a new structure.
The most significant alteration was the building of a Renaissance cathedral nave in the middle of the expansive structure. The insertion was constructed by permission of Charles V, king of Castile and Aragon. Artisans and architects continued to add to the existing structure until the late 18th century.
The building"s floor plan is seen to be parallel to some of the earliest mosques built from the very beginning of Islam. It had a rectangular prayer hall with aisles arranged perpendicular to the qibla, the direction towards which Muslims pray. The prayer hall was large and flat, with timber ceilings held up by arches of horseshoe-like appearance.
In planning the mosque, the architects incorporated a number of Roman columns with choice capitals. Some of the columns were already in the Gothic structure; others were sent from various regions of Iberia as presents from the governors of provinces. Ivory, jasper, porphyry, gold, silver, copper, and brass were used in the decorations. Marvellous mosaics and azulejos were designed. Later, the immense temple embodied all the styles of Morisco architecture into one composition.
The building is most notable for its arcaded hypostyle hall, with 856 columns of jasper, onyx, marble, granite and porphyry. These were made from pieces of the Roman temple that had occupied the site previously, as well as other Roman buildings, such as the Mérida amphitheatre. The double arches were an innovation, permitting higher ceilings than would otherwise be possible with relatively low columns. The double arches consist of a lower horseshoe arch and an upper semi-circular arch.