Moesgård Museum is situated at Moesgård manor near Aarhus. It is both a regional museum and a dedicated museum for archaeology and ethnography. The main part of the museum’s collection of archaeological artefacts is Danish, even though the museum possesses a rather large amount of archaeological material – known as The Ethnographical Collections – from Bahrain and other countries surrounding the Gulf. The Ethnographical Collections contains almost 50.000 artefacts from all over the world. They are used both for research and exhibitions. Besides artefacts The Ethnographical Collections contains photographic material, films and sound recordings. The museum’s exhibitions presents several unrivalled archaeological findings from Denmark’s ancient past, amongst others the Grauballe Man, the world’s best preserved bog body and the large ritual weapon caches from Illerup Ådal, testifying the power struggles and the warfare of the Iron Age. Furthermore the collection contains seven local rune stones. The main exhibition will be closed on 1. October 2012 due to rearrangements of the archaeological collections in Moesgård Museums new building, located only a short distance from the old manor house.
In the surrounding area of Moesgård, an open-air museum of several reconstructions have been made, each one reflecting a part of Denmark’s past. North of the museum two houses and a stave-church from the Viking Period have been build. First is a house from the Viking Age town of Hedeby near Schleswig, Germany. It has been dated to the time around 870 AD and is interpreted as the home of a craftsman’s or trader’s family. The other house is a reconstruction of a pit-house Viking Age Aarhus, from about 900 AD. Pit-houses are small huts, dug half-way into the ground, which could be used as dwellings, workshops or storerooms.
On a small hill behind the houses a stave-church has been erected together with a bell frame. None of the original stave-churches have survived, but the floor and post-holes from a stave-church were excavated under the present Hørning Church near Randers in 1960. Compared to the stone churches it was quite a small building, 31 feet long and 15 feet wide. Also preserved from the stave-church in Hørning was a portion of the so-called hammer-beam, the horizontal beam just under the roof-projection, which held the vertical planks. The ”Hørning-plank” was found as early as 1887 during a restoration of the walling of the present church. It can be seen in the Danish National Museum. On the outside the hammer-beam from Hørning was ornamented with the writhing serpents characteristic – of the Late Viking Period. On the basis of the growth-rings in the timber, it has been dated to about the year 1060, to the transition from the Viking Age Period to the Middle Ages. At the excavation site in Hørning, traces of a bell frame were discovered. This has also been reconstructed just in front of the church entrance. The church bell has been cast at Moesgård following a 900-year-old description of bell casting. It is a replica of the almost 800-year-old bell from Smollerup church near Viborg.
The estate of Moesgård covers 100 hectares of park, forest, open fields and shoreline, and extends from the museum buildings down to Aarhus Bay. The 4 km long Prehistoric Track runs through this area. A short walk from the museum an Iron Age house has been built. It is a reconstructed farmhouse from 200-300 AD, based on a settlement at Tofting near Husum just south of the Danish border. The house-type was well known throughout northern Europe. The building is 16 m long and both humans and cattle lived under the same roof. Near Moesgård Beach you will see a reconstruction of a cult-building, from the Funnel Beaker Period in the Late Stone Age (around 2500 AD). The original house was located near two dolmens and a passage grave at Tustrup in Northern Djursland. It is believed that this building might have been for religious ceremonies – perhaps as a resting place for the dead until the flesh had decayed and the bones could be moved into the surrounding graves. The building was burnt to the ground, and part of the roof sheeting of birch-bark with turf cover, had collapsed inwards with the burnt wall planking. 26 richly decorated offering vessels and pottery ladles representing the golden age of pottery in Danish prehistory, was found inside the building. The ceramics can be seen at Moesgård Museum. In the park at the manor you will find a house from Thailand. It is a donation to Moesgård Museum, given by the government of Thailand in 1975. The house is around 100 years old and originally from Ayutthaya – the old capital of Siam, 200 km north of Bangkok. Back then the house was a part of a larger building complex. Not far from Moesgård manor it is possible to visit an old water mill. This water mill is powered by the waters of Giber Å. The first reference to the mill is from 1590. All the buildings were rebuilt and an overshot mill-wheel installed in 1785. An extra storey was added to the mill house in 1852. Production ceased in 1910, but the mill is still in full working order.References:
The Church of the Savior on Spilled Blood is one of the main sights of St. Petersburg. The church was built on the site where Tsar Alexander II was assassinated and was dedicated in his memory. Construction began in 1883 under Alexander III, as a memorial to his father, Alexander II. Work progressed slowly and was finally completed during the reign of Nicholas II in 1907. Funding was provided by the Imperial family with the support of many private donors.
Architecturally, the Cathedral differs from St. Petersburg's other structures. The city's architecture is predominantly Baroque and Neoclassical, but the Savior on Blood harks back to medieval Russian architecture in the spirit of romantic nationalism. It intentionally resembles the 17th-century Yaroslavl churches and the celebrated St. Basil's Cathedral in Moscow.
The Church contains over 7500 square metres of mosaics — according to its restorers, more than any other church in the world. The interior was designed by some of the most celebrated Russian artists of the day — including Viktor Vasnetsov, Mikhail Nesterov and Mikhail Vrubel — but the church's chief architect, Alfred Alexandrovich Parland, was relatively little-known (born in St. Petersburg in 1842 in a Baltic-German Lutheran family). Perhaps not surprisingly, the Church's construction ran well over budget, having been estimated at 3.6 million roubles but ending up costing over 4.6 million. The walls and ceilings inside the Church are completely covered in intricately detailed mosaics — the main pictures being biblical scenes or figures — but with very fine patterned borders setting off each picture.
In the aftermath of the Russian Revolution, the church was ransacked and looted, badly damaging its interior. The Soviet government closed the church in the early 1930s. During the Second World War when many people were starving due to the Siege of Leningrad by Nazi German military forces, the church was used as a temporary morgue for those who died in combat and from starvation and illness. The church suffered significant damage. After the war, it was used as a warehouse for vegetables, leading to the sardonic name of Saviour on Potatoes.
In July 1970, management of the Church passed to Saint Isaac's Cathedral (then used as a highly profitable museum) and proceeds from the Cathedral were funneled back into restoring the Church. It was reopened in August 1997, after 27 years of restoration, but has not been reconsecrated and does not function as a full-time place of worship; it is a Museum of Mosaics. Even before the Revolution it never functioned as a public place of worship; having been dedicated exclusively to the memory of the assassinated tsar, the only services were panikhidas (memorial services). The Church is now one of the main tourist attractions in St. Petersburg.