Bobrowniki Castle was built by the Teutonic Knights. Following the Peace of Thorn (1411), it was taken over by the Polish, later to become a residence of the local mayor. Since the 18th century the castle has been laid in ruins.
Bobrowniki castle was erected at the turn of the 14th and 15th centuries, after the purchase of Bobrowniki village by the Teutonic Knights in 1392, possibly as an extension of an earlier fortress. It was located on the site of an old stronghold, founded by the Duke of Dobrzyn, Ladislaus the Hump-backed. Due to the close proximity of the country border, the elders of Dobrzyń nad Wisłą constantly improved the fortifications around the castle, which became the seat of the local government.
In 1405 Wladyslaw Jagiello purchased Dobrzyn and Bobrowniki, but four years later the Teutonic Knights attacked the castle. With the help of the treason of the defending commander Bobrowniki castle went back into Teutonic hands only to be returned to the Polish in 1411. Its border location had once again become the cause of many investments in the modernization of the facility. However, it no longer played any military role in wars to come. During the Thirteen Years' War (1454–66) the castle served as a prison for captured Knights of the Teutonic Order. Changes of the national border ultimately deprived the building of any strategic role.
In the seventeenth century it was already devastated to the point of being abandoned by the local government. During the war with Sweden, in the second half of the 18th century, the structure was almost completely destroyed. In the nineteenth century it was formally decided to demolish the castle. The ruins do not have an owner to this day.
Little is known about the appearance of the fortress at the time of the Teutonic Knights or later. The object was probably two-winged (other sources say that it was a square), surrounded by walls and a moat, with one gate and a cylindrical tower. The only remains of the past splendor of the castle are elements of fortified walls and a sentry tower.References:
The Palazzo Colonna is a palatial block of buildings built in part over ruins of an old Roman Serapeum, and has belonged to the prestigious Colonna family for over twenty generations.
The first part of the palace dates from the 13th century, and tradition holds that the building hosted Dante in his visit to Rome. The first documentary mention notes that the property hosted Cardinal Giovanni and Giacomo Colonna in the 13th century. It was also home to Cardinal Oddone Colonna before he ascended to the papacy as Martin V (1417–1431).
With his passing, the palace was sacked during feuds, and the main property passed into the hands of the Della Rovere family. It returned to the Colonna family when Marcantonio I Colonna married Lucrezia Gara Franciotti Della Rovere, the niece of pope Julius II. The Colonna"s alliance to the Habsburg power, likely protected the palace from looting during the Sack of Rome (1527).
Starting with Filippo Colonna (1578–1639) many changes have refurbished and create a unitary complex around a central garden. Architects including Girolamo Rainaldi and Paolo Marucelli labored on specific projects. Only in the 17th and 18th centuries were the main facades completed. Much of this design was completed by Antonio del Grande (including the grand gallery), and Girolamo Fontana (decoration of gallery). In the 18th century, the long low facade designed by Nicola Michetti with later additions by Paolo Posi with taller corner blocks (facing Piazza Apostoli) was constructed recalls earlier structures resembling a fortification.
The main gallery (completed 1703) and the masterful Colonna art collection was acquired after 1650 by both the cardinal Girolamo I Colonna and his nephew the Connestabile Lorenzo Onofrio Colonna and includes works by Lorenzo Monaco, Domenico Ghirlandaio, Palma the Elder, Salviati, Bronzino, Tintoretto, Pietro da Cortona, Annibale Carracci (painting of The Beaneater), Guercino, Francesco Albani, Muziano and Guido Reni. Ceiling frescoes by Filippo Gherardi, Giovanni Coli, Sebastiano Ricci, and Giuseppe Bartolomeo Chiari celebrate the role of Marcantonio II Colonna in the battle of Lepanto (1571). The gallery is open to the public on Saturday mornings.
The older wing of the complex known as the Princess Isabelle"s apartments, but once housing Martin V"s library and palace, contains frescoes by Pinturicchio, Antonio Tempesta, Crescenzio Onofri, Giacinto Gimignani, and Carlo Cesi. It contains a collection of landscapes and genre scenes by painters like Gaspard Dughet, Caspar Van Wittel (Vanvitelli), and Jan Brueghel the Elder.
Along with the possessions of the Doria-Pamphilij and Pallavacini-Rospigliosi families, this is one of the largest private art collections in Rome.