Rot an der Rot Abbey was the first Premonstratensian monastery in Swabia. The imposing structure of the former monastery is situated on a hill between the valleys of the rivers Rot and Haslach. The monastery church, dedicated to St Verena, and the convent buildings are an important part of the Upper Swabian Baroque Route. Apart from the actual monastic buildings, a number of other structures have been preserved among which are the gates and the economy building.
Rot an der Rot village was first mentioned around the year 1100. According to local tradition the monastery was founded under the name of Mönchroth in 1126 by Hemma von Wildenberg with active participation of Norbert of Xanten. The first monks to settle at Rot an der Rot Abbey were French Premonstratensians. Shortly after 1126, probably around 1140, a nunnery was added to Rot an der Rot Abbey, which was not unusual for the Premonstratensian order. By close proximity to a monastery the nuns were provided with protection and pastoral care. This nunnery continued to exist until the second half of the 14th century.
In a charter dated from 1179, Emperor Frederick Barbarossa declared himself Vogt of the abbey, laying the foundation for the later Imperial immediacy. In 1182 a devastating conflagration destroyed the original foundation documents and imperial privileges. A Papal bull by Lucius III published the same year replaced the lost documents and assigned the foundation of the monastery to Hemma von Wildenberg and two of her male relatives.
In 1338 the abbey received a grant exempting it from the jurisdiction of secular courts. Following the Great Plague of 1348 fewer members of the landed gentry joined the monastery but more and more farmers and members of the middle class resulting in a decrease in the acquisition of lands. Crop failures, fires, wars and an economic crisis lasting for decades accelerated the decline of the abbey until, in 1391, only three monks were left.
The abbot of Weissenau Abbey, an abbey originally founded as a filial institution by monks from Rot an der Rot, finally took control and in 1407 King Rupert installed Seneschal John II of Waldburg as governor of the abbey. The restoration of the fortunes of Rot an der Rot Abbey began with Abbot Henrich Merk (1417–20) and was continued by his successor Martin Hesser (1420–57), who was also called the second founder of Rot an der Rot. In Constance in 1425 an alliance was forged with most of the other Swabian abbots to defend the monasteries' rights against the intervention of noble family members of monks. Martin Hesser also expedited the restoration of monastic life and the restitution of the monastery's mortgaged and sold property as well as the rebuilding of the monastery buildings. Since 1458 Rot an der Rot Abbey had the financially lucrative right to occupy the incorporated parishes with priest from the monastery.
In 1481 a fire destroyed almost the whole monastery. The rebuilding of the monastery lasted until 1509 when the new church was dedicated. Emperor Maximilian I elevated Rot an der Rot Abbey to the status of Imperial Abbey in 1497. The abbey gained imperial immediacy and the abbot became a member of the Swabian College of Imperial Prelates contributing to the Council of the Princes in the Imperial Diet of the Holy Roman Empire. However, following repeated lootings during the German Peasants' War in 1525 and the Schmalkaldic War in 1546 the fortunes of the abbey went again into decline which was only stopped by cautious reforms introduced by Abbot Martin Ehrmann (1560–89).
During the Thirty Years' War (1618–48) the abbey was looted more than 200 times. After the end of the war and a period of consolidation, Abbot Martin Erde (1672–1711) endeavored to re-establish religious discipline and learning among the clerics and also attempted to improve the economic situation of the monastery. However, in 1681 most of the abbey was destroyed during a fire. Between 1681 and 1698 the whole monastery complex was rebuilt in Baroque-style.
The present-day monastery complex is towered by the neoclassicist monastery church St Verena. It was rebuilt between 1777 and 1786 and newly furnished since Abbot Mauritius Moritz had started with the demolishing of the older church against the wishes of the convent. The architect Johann Baptist Laub had the eastern part of the church erected but the real reconstruction commenced only under Abbot Willebold Held (1782–89). After the foundation stone was laid in 1783 most of the work was carried out by the canons themselves. The interior was designed by the painters Meinrad von Ow and Januarius Zick whereas the plaster was designed by Franz Xaver Feuchtmayer. The construction of the massive organ by Johann Nepomuk Holzhey began in 1792 and finished the following year. Adjoined to the church the new monastery building was built. At the bottom of the hill where the monastery is situated the square economy building was raised.
In 1803 the abbey was dissolved during the secularisation of secular and ecclesiastical states and the monks were forced to leave the premises. The monastery's possessions of thirteen villages and hamlets with a total of 2871 subjects were taken over by the Counts of Wartenberg in compensation for territories they had lost left of the river Rhine. In 1806 the monastery and village of Rot an der Rot was incorporated into the newly founded Kingdom of Württemberg. In 1808 the Counts of Erbach-Erbach inherited the former abbey. In the 19th century, two wings of the monastery building and the library were demolished.
In 1947 the Premonstratensians bought the monastery building and returned to Rot an der Rot. However, the attempt to re-establish monastic life failed and in 1959 the buildings were bought by the Roman Catholic Diocese of Rottenburg-Stuttgart. Today the former monastery is home to the educational and recreational establishment St Norbert run by Premonstratensian nuns who founded a community in Rot an der Rot in 1950.References:
The Church of the Savior on Spilled Blood is one of the main sights of St. Petersburg. The church was built on the site where Tsar Alexander II was assassinated and was dedicated in his memory. Construction began in 1883 under Alexander III, as a memorial to his father, Alexander II. Work progressed slowly and was finally completed during the reign of Nicholas II in 1907. Funding was provided by the Imperial family with the support of many private donors.
Architecturally, the Cathedral differs from St. Petersburg's other structures. The city's architecture is predominantly Baroque and Neoclassical, but the Savior on Blood harks back to medieval Russian architecture in the spirit of romantic nationalism. It intentionally resembles the 17th-century Yaroslavl churches and the celebrated St. Basil's Cathedral in Moscow.
The Church contains over 7500 square metres of mosaics — according to its restorers, more than any other church in the world. The interior was designed by some of the most celebrated Russian artists of the day — including Viktor Vasnetsov, Mikhail Nesterov and Mikhail Vrubel — but the church's chief architect, Alfred Alexandrovich Parland, was relatively little-known (born in St. Petersburg in 1842 in a Baltic-German Lutheran family). Perhaps not surprisingly, the Church's construction ran well over budget, having been estimated at 3.6 million roubles but ending up costing over 4.6 million. The walls and ceilings inside the Church are completely covered in intricately detailed mosaics — the main pictures being biblical scenes or figures — but with very fine patterned borders setting off each picture.
In the aftermath of the Russian Revolution, the church was ransacked and looted, badly damaging its interior. The Soviet government closed the church in the early 1930s. During the Second World War when many people were starving due to the Siege of Leningrad by Nazi German military forces, the church was used as a temporary morgue for those who died in combat and from starvation and illness. The church suffered significant damage. After the war, it was used as a warehouse for vegetables, leading to the sardonic name of Saviour on Potatoes.
In July 1970, management of the Church passed to Saint Isaac's Cathedral (then used as a highly profitable museum) and proceeds from the Cathedral were funneled back into restoring the Church. It was reopened in August 1997, after 27 years of restoration, but has not been reconsecrated and does not function as a full-time place of worship; it is a Museum of Mosaics. Even before the Revolution it never functioned as a public place of worship; having been dedicated exclusively to the memory of the assassinated tsar, the only services were panikhidas (memorial services). The Church is now one of the main tourist attractions in St. Petersburg.