Kokemäki Castle (Kokemäen linna) was a medieval castle in Kokemäki town. The time of its foundation is unclear, but the castle was most likely completed in 1324-1325. It was demolished in 1367 by order of King Albert, as the local residents complained of heavy taxation for the upkeep of the castle. The castle was located on the Linnaluoto Island in the river Kokemäenjoki.
Kokemäki Castle was the administrative centre of Kokemäenkartano slottslän. Its function was similar to that of the castles of Turku, Häme and Vyborg, which are still preserved today. The only known reference to Kokemäki Castle is King Albert's warrant for the demolition and relocation of the castle, dated 12 July 1367. It was probably built of limestone and equipped with a round tower. In 1364–1365 Kokemäki Castle was besieged by the army of King Albert as the castle was under the rule of Magnus IV of Sweden.
Archaeological excavations were made in 1885. Various items were found which were dated to the late Bronze Age, as well as to the 13th and 14th century. After the demolition of Kokemäki Castle a new castle, Aborch, was established. Location of this castle is uncertain, since it was disbanded in the 1410s. It was probably built 1.5 kilometres upstream at the same location as the later Kokemäenkartano manor.References:
The Externsteine (Extern stones) is a distinctive sandstone rock formation located in the Teutoburg Forest, near the town of Horn-Bad Meinberg. The formation is a tor consisting of several tall, narrow columns of rock which rise abruptly from the surrounding wooded hills. Archaeological excavations have yielded some Upper Paleolithic stone tools dating to about 10,700 BC from 9,600 BC.
In a popular tradition going back to an idea proposed to Hermann Hamelmann in 1564, the Externsteine are identified as a sacred site of the pagan Saxons, and the location of the Irminsul (sacral pillar-like object in German paganism) idol reportedly destroyed by Charlemagne; there is however no archaeological evidence that would confirm the site's use during the relevant period.
The stones were used as the site of a hermitage in the Middle Ages, and by at least the high medieval period were the site of a Christian chapel. The Externsteine relief is a medieval depiction of the Descent from the Cross. It remains controversial whether the site was already used for Christian worship in the 8th to early 10th centuries.
The Externsteine gained prominence when Völkisch and nationalistic scholars took an interest in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. This interest peaked under the Nazi regime, when the Externsteine became a focus of nazi propaganda. Today, they remain a popular tourist destination and also continue to attract Neo-Pagans and Neo-Nazis.