Schloss Hohenburg was built for Count Ferdinand Joseph von Herwarth in classical Baroque style in 1712–18. It replaced the medieval Hohenburg castle, which had been destroyed by fire in 1707 while occupied by Austrian troops during the War of the Spanish Succession. It is located approximately 300 metres west, at the foot of the hill on which the old castle was built; stones from the ruin were used in the construction, and also to build the Lenggries parish church, St. James, which was completed in 1722 and in which he is buried.
The main building of the palace has three storeys and a hip roof with waterspouts in the shape of dragons; the central portion has a mezzanine and the corner bays an additional half storey. There were originally three wings forming a large enclosed courtyard on the east side, of which two remain. A solid clock tower rises above the central bay facing this courtyard. The interior is sumptuously decorated with frescos, paintings, statues, ornamented pillars and chandeliers. The chapel was finished in 1722. Formal gardens in the style of Versailles were laid out by Matthias Diesel.
In the early 19th century the Herwarth line died out. Schloss Hohenburg changed hands a number of times, belonging to the Zech family in 1807, the Kramer family in 1817 and the Taufkirchen family in 1833. In 1836 it and the accompanying large feudal estate were bought by Prince Carl of Leiningen (1804 – 1856), half-brother to Queen Victoria through his mother, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, who remarried to Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn after the death of her first husband, Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen. He had changes made to the exterior of the palace, redecorated several rooms, and converted the Baroque garden to a park in the English style. He was also an enthusiastic huntsman and developed an extensive hunting preserve at Lenggries. He built the Gothic Waldleiningen Castle in the Odenwald at the same time.
In 1857, after Prince Carl"s death, the palace and estate were bought for only 32,000 guilders by Baron Carl von Eichthal, a banker who had financed art purchases by the future King Ludwig I of Bavaria and Bavarian loans to Greece and co-founded the Bayerische Hypotheken- und Wechselbank and several Bavarian railway companies. Carl von Eichthal bought the secularised Abbey of St. Blaise in the Black Forest and manufactured munitions and cotton there. In 1887 the estate belonging to Schloss Hohenburg encompassed 3,295 hectares and included an inn and other businesses in Lenggries, 150 farm animals, chiefly dairy cattle, cheese manufacturing and a brewery.
The palace and its large hunting preserve were bought in February 1870 by Adolphe of Nassau-Weilburg, who had lost his throne as Duke of Nassau to the Prussians in 1866 and had since been wandering between relatives" residences and looking for a hunting preserve. On 9 December 1890 he was sworn in as Grand Duke of Luxembourg and Schloss Hohenburg became his summer residence. He died there in 1905, and his son, William IV, spent increasing amounts of time there as his illness worsened. Following her service as regent before their daughter Marie-Adélaïde came of age, the palace then became the residence of his widow, Marie Anne of Portugal, until she and the remainder of the grand ducal family left for exile in the United States on 24 September 1939 following the outbreak of World War II. After the war the US General George S. Patton returned the property to the Grand Duchess Charlotte and the Grand Duchy.
In 1953 the Fürth industrialist Max Grundig bought the Hohenburg estate, and on 3 October that year donated the palace to the sisters of the Ursuline Convent of St. Joseph in Landshut, who opened a middle school, housekeeping training school and boarding school for girls there. The Catholic Archdiocese of Munich and Freising took over the schools in 1990, and the nuns returned to Landshut in 2003; the property remains the site of two girls" schools.References:
The Palazzo Colonna is a palatial block of buildings built in part over ruins of an old Roman Serapeum, and has belonged to the prestigious Colonna family for over twenty generations.
The first part of the palace dates from the 13th century, and tradition holds that the building hosted Dante in his visit to Rome. The first documentary mention notes that the property hosted Cardinal Giovanni and Giacomo Colonna in the 13th century. It was also home to Cardinal Oddone Colonna before he ascended to the papacy as Martin V (1417–1431).
With his passing, the palace was sacked during feuds, and the main property passed into the hands of the Della Rovere family. It returned to the Colonna family when Marcantonio I Colonna married Lucrezia Gara Franciotti Della Rovere, the niece of pope Julius II. The Colonna"s alliance to the Habsburg power, likely protected the palace from looting during the Sack of Rome (1527).
Starting with Filippo Colonna (1578–1639) many changes have refurbished and create a unitary complex around a central garden. Architects including Girolamo Rainaldi and Paolo Marucelli labored on specific projects. Only in the 17th and 18th centuries were the main facades completed. Much of this design was completed by Antonio del Grande (including the grand gallery), and Girolamo Fontana (decoration of gallery). In the 18th century, the long low facade designed by Nicola Michetti with later additions by Paolo Posi with taller corner blocks (facing Piazza Apostoli) was constructed recalls earlier structures resembling a fortification.
The main gallery (completed 1703) and the masterful Colonna art collection was acquired after 1650 by both the cardinal Girolamo I Colonna and his nephew the Connestabile Lorenzo Onofrio Colonna and includes works by Lorenzo Monaco, Domenico Ghirlandaio, Palma the Elder, Salviati, Bronzino, Tintoretto, Pietro da Cortona, Annibale Carracci (painting of The Beaneater), Guercino, Francesco Albani, Muziano and Guido Reni. Ceiling frescoes by Filippo Gherardi, Giovanni Coli, Sebastiano Ricci, and Giuseppe Bartolomeo Chiari celebrate the role of Marcantonio II Colonna in the battle of Lepanto (1571). The gallery is open to the public on Saturday mornings.
The older wing of the complex known as the Princess Isabelle"s apartments, but once housing Martin V"s library and palace, contains frescoes by Pinturicchio, Antonio Tempesta, Crescenzio Onofri, Giacinto Gimignani, and Carlo Cesi. It contains a collection of landscapes and genre scenes by painters like Gaspard Dughet, Caspar Van Wittel (Vanvitelli), and Jan Brueghel the Elder.
Along with the possessions of the Doria-Pamphilij and Pallavacini-Rospigliosi families, this is one of the largest private art collections in Rome.