Grünwald Castle is a medieval hill castle. The history goes probably back to a Roman watchtower on the Isar river. The high medieval castle of the 12th century was documented as a possession of the counts of Andechs. In 1293 it came into the possession of the Wittelsbach. Louis II, Duke of Bavaria acquired at that time the possession of the fortress from Ulrich Vellenberg, a ministeriales of the Counts of Andechs. The castle served then also as a residence for his consort Matilda of Habsburg. The present building dates mainly from the late 15th century, when the castle was renovated to celebrate the wedding of Albert IV, Duke of Bavaria with Kunigunde of Austria, a daughter of emperor Frederick III. The construction work was carried out 1486–87 under the direction of the foreman Jörg Weikertshausen. Louis X, Duke of Bavaria was born here in 1495. The castle was then used as a ducal hunting lodge, prison and powder magazine.
In 1872 the castle was sold into private hands. A project for a luxury condominium was prevented by a citizens' initiative which finally led to the purchase of the castle by the Free State of Bavaria in 1976. Since 1979 the Castle houses the Museum Grünwald, a branch of the Bavarian State Archaeological Collection. The castle can be visited, the main tower offers a worthwhile view.
Large parts of the castle were demolished in the 17th and 18th century because the Isar River had undermined the castle hill. At that time the late-Gothic residential quarters of the castle with their rich interior and the chapel of St. George were lost. The early modern state is still delivered on a fresco in the Antiquarium in the Munich Residenz.
Since the partial demolition the fortress is an irregular rectangle plant, which is protected by a kennel with a round tower and a deep moat and a gate tower with a renewed cycle of coat of arms. In the north-east corner stands a donjon, a high, square tower. In between lies the elongated three-storey east wing. The north west corner is dominated by the embattled so-called little tower. The adjoining west wing consists of three different levels. The deep fountain in the courtyard which is lined with tufa stone still goes back to the Middle Ages.References:
Royal Palace of Naples was one of the four residences near Naples used by the Bourbon Kings during their rule of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (1734-1860): the others were the palaces of Caserta, Capodimonte overlooking Naples, and the third Portici, on the slopes of Vesuvius.
Construction on the present building was begun in the 17th century by the architect Domenico Fontana. Intended to house the King Philip III of Spain on a visit never fulfilled to this part of his kingdom, instead it initially housed the Viceroy Fernando Ruiz de Castro, count of Lemos. By 1616, the facade had been completed, and by 1620, the interior was frescoed by Battistello Caracciolo, Giovanni Balducci, and Belisario Corenzio. The decoration of the Royal Chapel of Assumption was not completed until 1644 by Antonio Picchiatti.
In 1734, with the arrival of Charles III of Spain to Naples, the palace became the royal residence of the Bourbons. On the occasion of his marriage to Maria Amalia of Saxony in 1738, Francesco De Mura and Domenico Antonio Vaccaro helped remodel the interior. Further modernization took place under Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies. In 1768, on the occasion of his marriage to Maria Carolina of Austria, under the direction of Ferdinando Fuga, the great hall was rebuilt and the court theater added. During the second half of the 18th century, a 'new wing' was added, which in 1927 became the Vittorio Emanuele III National Library. By the 18th century, the royal residence was moved to Reggia of Caserta, as that inland town was more defensible from naval assault, as well as more distant from the often-rebellious populace of Naples.
During the Napoleonic occupation the palace was enriched by Joachim Murat and his wife, Caroline Bonaparte, with Neoclassic decorations and furnishings. However, a fire in 1837 damaged many rooms, and required restoration from 1838 to 1858 under the direction of Gaetano Genovese. Further additions of a Party Wing and a Belvedere were made in this period. At the corner of the palace with San Carlo Theatre, a new facade was created that obscured the viceroyal palace of Pedro de Toledo.
In 1922, it was decided to transfer here the contents of the National Library. The transfer of library collections was made by 1925.
The library suffered from bombing during World War II and the subsequent military occupation of the building caused serious damage. Today, the palace and adjacent grounds house the famous Teatro San Carlo, the smaller Teatrino di Corte (recently restored), the Biblioteca Nazionale Vittorio Emanuele III, a museum, and offices, including those of the regional tourist board.