Grünwald Castle is a medieval hill castle. The history goes probably back to a Roman watchtower on the Isar river. The high medieval castle of the 12th century was documented as a possession of the counts of Andechs. In 1293 it came into the possession of the Wittelsbach. Louis II, Duke of Bavaria acquired at that time the possession of the fortress from Ulrich Vellenberg, a ministeriales of the Counts of Andechs. The castle served then also as a residence for his consort Matilda of Habsburg. The present building dates mainly from the late 15th century, when the castle was renovated to celebrate the wedding of Albert IV, Duke of Bavaria with Kunigunde of Austria, a daughter of emperor Frederick III. The construction work was carried out 1486–87 under the direction of the foreman Jörg Weikertshausen. Louis X, Duke of Bavaria was born here in 1495. The castle was then used as a ducal hunting lodge, prison and powder magazine.
In 1872 the castle was sold into private hands. A project for a luxury condominium was prevented by a citizens' initiative which finally led to the purchase of the castle by the Free State of Bavaria in 1976. Since 1979 the Castle houses the Museum Grünwald, a branch of the Bavarian State Archaeological Collection. The castle can be visited, the main tower offers a worthwhile view.
Large parts of the castle were demolished in the 17th and 18th century because the Isar River had undermined the castle hill. At that time the late-Gothic residential quarters of the castle with their rich interior and the chapel of St. George were lost. The early modern state is still delivered on a fresco in the Antiquarium in the Munich Residenz.
Since the partial demolition the fortress is an irregular rectangle plant, which is protected by a kennel with a round tower and a deep moat and a gate tower with a renewed cycle of coat of arms. In the north-east corner stands a donjon, a high, square tower. In between lies the elongated three-storey east wing. The north west corner is dominated by the embattled so-called little tower. The adjoining west wing consists of three different levels. The deep fountain in the courtyard which is lined with tufa stone still goes back to the Middle Ages.References:
The Church of St Eustace was built between 1532-1632. St Eustace"s is considered a masterpiece of late Gothic architecture. The church’s reputation was strong enough of the time for it to be chosen as the location for a young Louis XIV to receive communion. Mozart also chose the sanctuary as the location for his mother’s funeral. Among those baptised here as children were Richelieu, Jeanne-Antoinette Poisson, future Madame de Pompadour and Molière, who was also married here in the 17th century. The last rites for Anne of Austria, Turenne and Mirabeau were pronounced within its walls. Marie de Gournay is buried there.
The origins of Saint Eustache date back to 13th century. The church became a parish church in 1223, thanks to a man named Jean Alais who achieved this by taxing the baskets of fish sold nearby, as granted by King Philip Augustus. To thank such divine generosity, Alais constructed a chapel dedicated to Sainte-Agnès, a Roman martyr. The construction of the current church began in 1532, the work not being finally completed until 1637. The name of the church refers to Saint Eustace, a Roman general of the second century AD who was burned, along with his family, for converting to Christianity, and it is believed that it was the transfer of a relic of Saint Eustache from the Abbey to Saint-Denis to the Church of Saint Eustache which resulted in its naming. Jeanne Baptiste d"Albert de Luynes was baptised here.
According to tourist literature on-site, during the French Revolution the church, like most churches in Paris, was desecrated, looted, and used for a time as a barn. The church was restored after the Revolution had run its course and remains in use today. Several impressive paintings by Rubens remain in the church today. Each summer, organ concerts commemorate the premieres of Berlioz’s Te Deum and Liszt’s Christus here in 1886.
The church is an example of a Gothic structure clothed in Renaissance detail. The church is relatively short in length at 105m, but its interior is 33.45m high to the vaulting. At the main façade, the left tower has been completed in Renaissance style, while the right tower remains a stump. The front and rear aspects provide a remarkable contrast between the comparatively sober classical front and the exuberant rear, which integrates Gothic forms and organization with Classical details. The L"écoute sculpture by Henri de Miller appears outside the church, to the south. A Keith Haring sculpture stands in a chapel of the church.
The Chapel of the Virgin was built in 1640 and restored from 1801 to 1804. It was inaugurated by Pius VII on the 22nd of December, 1804 when he came to Paris for the coronation of Napoleon. The apse chapel, with a ribbed cul-de-four vault, has at its centre a sculpture of the Virgin and Child of Jean-Baptiste Pigalle that the painter Thomas Couture highlighted by three large paintings.
With 8,000 pipes, the organ is reputed to be the largest pipe organ in France, surpassing the organs of Saint Sulpice and Notre Dame de Paris. The organ originally constructed by P.-A. Ducroquet was powerful enough for the premiere of Hector Berlioz" titanic Te Deum to be performed at St-Eustache in 1855.