Menen Town Hall

Menen, Belgium

Menen's town hall consists of several buildings located in the middle of the market square. Through the centuries, it has been repeatedly devastated and altered. The present town hall building was established in 1782, when the Austrian Habsburgers ruled over the Southern Netherlands. The façade is in a simple and austere classical style. The Cloth Hall and the Mansion (landhuis) were also part of the town hall complex. The Cloth Hall was situated in the Ieperstraat, behind the belfry.After the French Revolution, in 1808, Napoleon's power repaired the buildings damaged in Revolution Wars. Another 30 years later, when Belgium had become an independent state, the Menen town council decided to convert the Cloth Hall into private houses. Over the last 150 years, several buildings in the town hall complex have changed purposes a number of times and were converted each time. The town hall survived both world wars unscathed.

The Menen belfry was built up against the town hall. It has an eventful history and has been listed by Unesco as a world heritage site since 1999. The first stone was laid in 1574, but as the wars of religion were raging in those days, the works were already halted in 1576, barely 2 years after they started. The construction works were resumed in 1610, and a superstructure in brick was constructed on top of the existing base that was put up in natural stone. On top of that structure, a wooden spire was established, with a domed roof and lantern. That spire was shot off during the siege of Menen in 1706.

Afterwards, the belfry was repaired and a third, octagonal upper layer was added at the same time. On this third floor too, a wooden spire was built, again with domed roof and lantern.

The belfry escaped major damage during the French siege and the subsequent Austrian period. Until the French Republican troops shot off the lantern again in 1794. It was only in 1828 that repair works were carried out, and that a fourth, octagonal floor was added, which was enclosed by an openwork balustrade. On the side of the belfry, in a recess, a small 17th-century statue is still to be seen. It is a superb wooden sculpture painted in polychrome representing the flagellated Christ. It is called Ons Heer in ‘t Riet, freely translated as Our Lord of the Reeds.

The belfry houses the carillon. The present carillon was installed in 1962 and comprises 49 bells, weighing nearly 5 tons. Like all carillons, the Menen carillon also has its origin in the tower clock. The first carillon dated from 1616, when the belfry tower had only two floors and a wooden spire. It had 18 bells. A century later, it was replaced by a newcarillon with 34 bells, but this did not survive the French Revolution. After long negotiations, Menen finally acquired a bass bell in 1802, but even so, the present carillon only was installed in 1962. In 2001, a new carillon keyboardwas installed.

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Address

Grote Markt, Menen, Belgium
See all sites in Menen

Details

Founded: 1782
Category: Palaces, manors and town halls in Belgium

More Information

www.menen.be

Rating

4.1/5 (based on Google user reviews)

User Reviews

Belchin Asenov (2 months ago)
Super super good
Margarita Wellecan (3 months ago)
Very nice home
Mohamed Adam (5 months ago)
It was a great experience for me to visit this place. My job was done easy and quick. I am thankful for your priceless work.
Alain Selvais (6 months ago)
Very beautiful place but they only speak the flame
stacey latex (9 months ago)
Ms. cargo bike at the counter of the population service thinks it is appropriate as an official city employee to laugh straight in the face to a transgender person while he comes to register as a new resident of the relevant farm gucht Wouldn't you be better off looking for a job somewhere at the factory You are unable to perform your function in a professional manner You are incompetent to the core
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Pembroke Castle

Pembroke Castle is a Norman castle, founded in 1093. It survived many changes of ownership and is now the largest privately owned castle in Wales. It was the birthplace of Henry Tudor (later Henry VII of England) in 1457.

Pembroke Castle stands on a site that has been occupied at least since the Roman period. Roger de Montgomerie, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury founded the first castle here in the 11th century. Although only made from earth and wood, Pembroke Castle resisted several Welsh attacks and sieges over the next 30 years. The castle was established at the heart of the Norman-controlled lands of southwest Wales.

When William Rufus died, Arnulf de Montgomery joined his elder brother, Robert of Bellême, in rebellion against Henry I, William's brother and successor as king; when the rebellion failed, he was forced to forfeit all his British lands and titles. Henry appointed his castellan, but when the chosen ally turned out to be incompetent, the King reappointed Gerald in 1102. By 1138 King Stephen had given Pembroke Castle to Gilbert de Clare who used it as an important base in the Norman invasion of Ireland.

In August 1189 Richard I arranged the marriage of Isabel, de Clare's granddaughter, to William Marshal who received both the castle and the title, Earl of Pembroke. He had the castle rebuilt in stone and established the great keep at the same time. Marshal was succeeded in turn by each of his five sons. His third son, Gilbert Marshal, was responsible for enlarging and further strengthening the castle between 1234 and 1241.

Later de Valence family held Pembroke for 70 years. During this time, the town was fortified with defensive walls, three main gates and a postern. Pembroke Castle became de Valence's military base for fighting the Welsh princes during the conquest of North Wales by Edward I between 1277 and 1295.

Pembroke Castle then reverted to the crown. In the 15th and 16th centuries, the castle was a place of peace until the outbreak of the English Civil War. Although most of South Wales sided with the King, Pembroke declared for Parliament. It was besieged by Royalist troops but was saved after Parliamentary reinforcements arrived by sea from nearby Milford Haven. Parliamentary forces then went on to capture the Royalist castles of Tenby, Haverfordwest and Carew.

In 1648, at the beginning of the Second Civil War, Pembroke's commander Colonel John Poyer led a Royalist uprising. Oliver Cromwell came to Pembroke on 24 May 1648 and took the castle after a seven-week siege. Its three leaders were found guilty of treason and Cromwell ordered the castle to be destroyed. Townspeople were even encouraged to disassemble the fortress and re-use its stone for their purposes.

The castle was then abandoned and allowed to decay. It remained in ruins until 1880, when a three-year restoration project was undertaken. Nothing further was done until 1928, when Major-General Sir Ivor Philipps acquired the castle and began an extensive restoration of the castle's walls, gatehouses, and towers. After his death, a trust was set up for the castle, jointly managed by the Philipps family and Pembroke town council.

Architecture

The castle is sited on a strategic rocky promontory by the Milford Haven Waterway. The first fortification on the site was a Norman motte-and-bailey. It had earthen ramparts and a timber palisade.

In 1189, Pembroke Castle was acquired by William Marshal. He soon became Lord Marshal of England, and set about turning the earth and wood fort into an impressive Norman stone castle. The inner ward, which was constructed first, contains the huge round keep with its domed roof. Its original first-floor entrance was through an external stairwell. Inside, a spiral staircase connected its four stories. The keep's domed roof also has several putlog holes that supported a wooden fighting-platform. If the castle was attacked, the hoarding allowed defenders to go out beyond the keep's massive walls above the heads of the attackers.

The inner ward's curtain wall had a large horseshoe-shaped gateway. But only a thin wall was required along the promontory. This section of the wall has a small observation turret and a square stone platform. Domestic buildings including William Marshal's Great Hall and private apartments were within the inner ward. The 13th century keep is 23 metres tall with walls up to 6 metres thick at its base.

In the late 13th century, additional buildings were added to the inner ward, including a new Great Hall. A 55-step spiral staircase was also created that led down to a large limestone cave, known as Wogan Cavern, beneath the castle. The cave, which was created by natural water erosion, was fortified with a wall, a barred gateway and arrowslits. It may have served as a boathouse or a sallyport to the river where cargo or people could have been transferred.

The outer ward was defended by a large twin-towered gatehouse, a barbican and several round towers. The outer wall is 5 metres thick in places and constructed from Siltstone ashlar.

Although Pembroke Castle is a Norman-style enclosure castle with great keep, it can be more accurately described as a linear fortification because, like the later 13th-century castles at Caernarfon and Conwy, it was built on a rocky promontory surrounded by water. This meant that attacking forces could only assault on a narrow front. Architecturally, Pembroke's thickest walls and towers are all concentrated on its landward side facing the town, with Pembroke River providing a natural defense around the rest of its perimeter.