The Buchlov royal castle was built in the first half of the 13th century, but archaeological finds suggest that the area around Buchlov castle was settled in the oldest periods of civilization.
The first castle was created with two massive prismatic towers situated on opposite parts of a rocky plateau. A high palace on the southern part of the yard was built at the same time and it was surrounded by a wall. The second construction period occurred in the 1370s. Another tower was built and on the second floor of this tower there was a chapel that held the most valuable objects of early Gothic architecture of the day.
The chapel was destroyed and then abandoned when Hungarian king Matthias Corvinus captured the castle in the second half of the 15th century. It was replaced by two large rooms serving as store and depository. And although the castle was a permanent possession of a king until the 16th century, it was often given in pawn to aristocratic clans. Nobles of Cimburk owned it at the end of the 15th century. At that time a representative chivalric hall was built. In the year 1511 the castle was given to a private holder, and from the 16th to 18th century various Moravian clans changed its ownership. The most important were the nobles of Žerotín, Zástřizl and Petřvald families. Constructional work continued in Renaissance style. Some parts of the castle were added in baroque style. However, in 1701, the Buchlovice Castle was finished and in 1751 the owners, the Berchtold noble family, occupied it for more than two centuries.
A family museum was built in the castle thanks to the brothers Leopold Berchtold and Bedřich Berchtold. Leopold Berchtold, who was foreign minister of Austria-Hungary at the beginning of World War I. He was buried at Buchlau after his death in November 1942. In 1945, after the end of World War II, the castle was confiscated on the bases of Beneš decrees and became property of the Czechoslovak state. Later it was added to the list of national cultural monuments. Nowadays it is open to public, and many cultural programs are held each year.
Saint Barbara’s Chapel also called Barborka came into existence in the 13th century, and it was used as a funeral crypt for holders of a manor of Buchlov. Later it was rebuilt and finished in the year 1672. It is built in early baroque style on a cruciform plan with a central cupola. It is one kilometer away from Buchlov castle. Pilgrimage divine services are held to this day.References:
The Petersberg Citadel is one of the largest extant early-modern citadels in Europe and covers the whole north-western part of the Erfurt city centre. It was built after 1665 on Petersberg hill and was in military use until 1963. It dates from a time when Erfurt was ruled by the Electors of Mainz and is a unique example of the European style of fortress construction. Beneath the citadel is an underground maze of passageways that can be visited on guided tours organised by Erfurt Tourist Office.
The citadel was originally built on the site of a medieval Benedictine Monastery and the earliest parts of the complex date from the 12th century. Erfurt has also been ruled by Sweden, Prussia, Napoleon, the German Empire, the Nazis, and post-World War II Soviet occupying forces, and it was part of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany). All of these regimes used Petersberg Citadel and had an influence on its development. The baroque fortress was in military use until 1963. Since German reunification in 1990, the citadel has undergone significant restoration and it is now open to the public as a historic site.