In the 12th century on the hills above Škofja Loka stood three fortifications: the Upper Tower on Krancelj, the Lower Fort and the Loka Castle, a residence of Freising Bishops, built at the brink of a natural terrace. The castle is first mentioned in 1202 as castrum firmissimum, although today's building dates from the 16th century. The castle was rebuilt in 1691 after an earthquake and in 1716.
The castle was administered by Loka chiefs, among them Lambergs, Thurms, and Rasps. Since 1890 the castle has been managed by the Ursulines, who pulled down the Romanesque yard tower and transformed it into a school. Since 1959 it has hosted the Loka Museum.
The circular castle dominates above Škofja Loka town and presents the conclusion of the town walls. It can be dated after the earthquake in 1511, although some parts are older, which was confirmed during the renovation works in 2006–2008. The north-eastern tower, the oldest in the structure, is built on an older predecessor from the 10th century. Together with the renovation work the reconstruction of the primary entrance with a wooden drawbridge was also carried out.References:
Goryōkaku (五稜郭) (literally, 'five-point fort') is a star fort in the Japanese city of Hakodate on the island of Hokkaido. The fortress was completed in 1866. It was the main fortress of the short-lived Republic of Ezo.
Goryōkaku was designed in 1855 by Takeda Ayasaburō and Jules Brunet. Their plans was based on the work of the French architect Vauban. The fortress was completed in 1866, two years before the collapse of the Tokugawa Shogunate. It is shaped like a five-pointed star. This allowed for greater numbers of gun emplacements on its walls than a traditional Japanese fortress, and reduced the number of blind spots where a cannon could not fire.
The fort was built by the Tokugawa shogunate to protect the Tsugaru Strait against a possible invasion by the Meiji government.
Goryōkaku is famous as the site of the last battle of the Boshin War.