The Triple Bridge is a group of three bridges across the Ljubljanica River. It connects the Ljubljana's historical, medieval, town on one bank, and the modern city of Ljubljana, capital of Slovenia, on the other.
The central bridge is partly built from Glinica limestone. Other parts are built from concrete. The balustrades with 642 balusters are made of artificial concrete. The platform is covered with granite blocks laid in 2010. Previously, it was covered with asphalt.
There is mention of a wooden bridge in this location from 1280. It was at first called the Old Bridge and later the Lower Bridge, in contrast to the Upper Bridge that was built in the location of the nowadays Cobblers' Bridge in the same century. It was also named the Špital Bridge after the nearby poorhouse, which was established in the early 14th century. It was built anew in 1657 after a fire.
In 1842, the Lower Bridge was replaced by a new bridge designed by Giovanni Picco, an Italian architect from Villach, and named Franz's Bridge, in honor of Archduke Franz Karl of Austria. It also became known as the Franciscan Bridge. This bridge, opened on 25 September 1842, had two arches and a metal fence.
In order to prevent the 1842 stone arch bridge from being a bottleneck, the architect Jože Plečnik designed in 1929 the extension of the bridge with two footbridges at a sligh angle on each side of it. In collaboration with his student Ciril Tavčar, who drew the plans, he published the proposal in the same year in the journal Ljubljanski Zvon. Construction started in 1931 and continued until spring 1932. The bridge was opened for traffic in April 1932.
The bridge was renovated in 1992. Since 2007, all the three bridges have been part of the Ljubljana pedestrian-only zone.References:
Narikala is an ancient fortress overlooking Tbilisi, the capital of Georgia, and the Kura River. The fortress consists of two walled sections on a steep hill between the sulphur baths and the botanical gardens of Tbilisi. On the lower court there is the recently restored St Nicholas church. Newly built in 1996–1997, it replaces the original 13th-century church that was destroyed in a fire. The new church is of 'prescribed cross' type, having doors on three sides. The internal part of the church is decorated with the frescos showing scenes both from the Bible and history of Georgia.
The fortress was established in the 4th century and it was a Persian citadel. It was considerably expanded by the Umayyads in the 7th century and later, by king David the Builder (1089–1125). Most of extant fortifications date from the 16th and 17th centuries. In 1827, parts of the fortress were damaged by an earthquake and demolished.