StiÄna Abbey is the oldest monastery in the territory of today's Slovenia. It is the only Cistercian one in the country that still operates. The abbey foundation charter was issued in 1136 by Pellegrinus I., Patriarch of Aquileia, although monastic conventual life had begun a year earlier, in 1135. The monastery at StiÄna quickly became important religious, cultural and economic centre.
As well as an ordinary school, the monastery had a music school as well, at which the Renaissance composer Jacobus Gallus is believed to have received his earliest musical education. The successful life of the monastery was hampered by the raids of the Ottoman Turks, and it twice fell victim to burning and looting. In 1784 Emperor Joseph II abolished the monastery, dissolved under the Josephine Reforms, but resettled again in 1898 by monks from Mehrerau Abbey on the shore of lake Constance. StiÄna abbey works undisturbed since.
Its scriptorium was already producing beautiful illuminated Latin manuscripts in the 12th century, and it was here that the famous StiÄna manuscript, written in Slovene, was produced in the 15th century.
In terms of architecture, abbey changed its image, so we can observe traces and shapes of romanic, gothic in baroque buildings, the eldest core of the abbey stayed preserved. Abbey has a Basilica, named after the Sad Mother of God, which serves as a parish church. Abbey and Romanesque basilica are now declared as cultural monuments of national significance.References:
Roman Walls of Lugo are an exceptional architectural, archaeological and constructive legacy of Roman engineering, dating from the 3rd and 4th centuries AD. The Walls are built of internal and external stone facings of slate with some granite, with a core filling of a conglomerate of slate slabs and worked stone pieces from Roman buildings, interlocked with lime mortar.
Their total length of 2117 m in the shape of an oblong rectangle occupies an area of 1.68 ha. Their height varies between 8 and 10 m, with a width of 4.2 m, reaching 7 m in some specific points. The walls still contain 85 external towers, 10 gates (five of which are original and five that were opened in modern times), four staircases and two ramps providing access to the walkway along the top of the walls, one of which is internal and the other external. Each tower contained access stairs leading from the intervallum to the wall walk of town wall, of which a total of 21 have been discovered to date.
The defences of Lugo are the most complete and best preserved example of Roman military architecture in the Western Roman Empire.
Despite the renovation work carried out, the walls conserve their original layout and the construction features associated with their defensive purpose, with walls, battlements, towers, fortifications, both modern and original gates and stairways, and a moat.
Since they were built, the walls have defined the layout and growth of the city, which was declared a Historical-Artistic Ensemble in 1973, forming a part of it and becoming an emblematic structure that can be freely accessed to walk along. The local inhabitants and visitors alike have used them as an area for enjoyment and as a part of urban life for centuries.
The fortifications were added to UNESCO"s World Heritage List in late 2000 and are a popular tourist attraction.