Pandurica is an ancient castle in Montenegro to the south of Nikšić town. It is situated in a hilly area of the same name on the bank of the river Zeta. It is a cultural monument of national significance.
The castle was originally built in 1367 by Stracimir Balšić, the Lord of Zeta principality. The area of Pandurica belonged then to Upper Zeta region of the principality, and in 1362 it was included in Balšić family possession. The Pandurica castle, which was named after the area, began to be used to control mountain trail and Zeta river ford.
In 1473 Upper Zeta was granted by ruler Ivan Crnojević to his duke called Bodgan, who was the founder and leader of Pješivci tribe. The southern rim of Nikšić valley along Zeta served as border between land of tribe's Nikcevici family and Ottoman Empire, which occupied land around Nikšić (then-called Onogošt). Trade route was established between the lands, and Pandurica castle was then used to control this route. Turks were attacking the castle regularly, but it was re-built each time. There are suggestions that the area near castle was actively re-constructed between 1500 and 1600. In the 16th century the Ostrog Monastery was founded in south-eastern mountains along the trail; so Pandurica castle begun to serve as a security cordon for the monastery.
In 1877 Niksic town was liberated from Turks by the forces of Prince Nikola Petrović-Njegoš (later the King). In 1878 Old Herzegovina was adjoined to Montenegro by demand of Russia. To connect new territories to mainland Montenegro and its capital Podgorica, it was decided to build a new road and construct a bridge over Zeta in about 1 km near Pandurica castle. The river was very wide there, so the bridge turned to be very lengthy. Prince Nikola asked Russian Emperor Alexander III for help: he agreed and assigned resources to build the road, that went near the castle, and to construct the massive 18-span monumental bridge, the Carev Most, now considered one of Montenegro's main landmarks.
As of 2014, the castle and adjacent territories still belonged to Nikcevici family of Pješivci tribe. Nowadays archaeological and restoration works are underway in the castle.References:
Roman Walls of Lugo are an exceptional architectural, archaeological and constructive legacy of Roman engineering, dating from the 3rd and 4th centuries AD. The Walls are built of internal and external stone facings of slate with some granite, with a core filling of a conglomerate of slate slabs and worked stone pieces from Roman buildings, interlocked with lime mortar.
Their total length of 2117 m in the shape of an oblong rectangle occupies an area of 1.68 ha. Their height varies between 8 and 10 m, with a width of 4.2 m, reaching 7 m in some specific points. The walls still contain 85 external towers, 10 gates (five of which are original and five that were opened in modern times), four staircases and two ramps providing access to the walkway along the top of the walls, one of which is internal and the other external. Each tower contained access stairs leading from the intervallum to the wall walk of town wall, of which a total of 21 have been discovered to date.
The defences of Lugo are the most complete and best preserved example of Roman military architecture in the Western Roman Empire.
Despite the renovation work carried out, the walls conserve their original layout and the construction features associated with their defensive purpose, with walls, battlements, towers, fortifications, both modern and original gates and stairways, and a moat.
Since they were built, the walls have defined the layout and growth of the city, which was declared a Historical-Artistic Ensemble in 1973, forming a part of it and becoming an emblematic structure that can be freely accessed to walk along. The local inhabitants and visitors alike have used them as an area for enjoyment and as a part of urban life for centuries.
The fortifications were added to UNESCO"s World Heritage List in late 2000 and are a popular tourist attraction.