Citadelle of Quebec

Quebec City, Canada

The Citadelle of Quebec is an active military installation and official residence of both the Canadian monarch and the Governor General of Canada. It is located atop Cap Diamant, adjoining the Plains of Abraham in Quebec City. The citadel is the oldest military building in Canada, and forms part of the fortifications of Quebec City, which is one of only two cities in North America still surrounded by fortifications, the other being Campeche, Mexico.

The first fortifications in Quebec were built by the Governor General of New France Louis de Buade, and completed just in time for the Battle of Quebec in 1690.

After the British conquest in the second half of the 18th century, the problem of Quebec City's defences grew more acute. Fears of a potential French attempt to recapture the colony, concerns about a possible uprising by the local French population and war with the Americans forced the British to develop a new defensive strategy for the city. Between 1778 and 1783, during the American War of Independence, wooden redoubts and earthworks were constructed on Cap Diamant. The Citadel was not necessarily meant to be the central element in Quebec City's defences, but was designed to play more of a supporting role while at the same time serving as the corner stone of the system.

Having narrowly repelled the American invasion of Canada during the War of 1812, the British decided to re-examine their defensive strategy. The current fortress was constructed from 1820 to 1832. 

Soldiers of the British garrison did the lion's share of the construction work. The Citadel, which was also designed to serve as a barracks and arms depot, could house between 1,000 and 1,500 soldiers and their equipment. It was rare, however, for the full complement of troops to be stationed there. In mid-19th century Quebec City, the British garrison was split between the Citadel, the Jesuit Barracks (where City Hall stands today), and Artillery Park.

The Citadel's role has evolved over time and although it was never tested in battle, it has been continuously occupied by the military throughout its history. In the years following its completion, changes were made to the defensive system in Quebec City and the surrounding area. For example, the guns on the bastions were replaced by more modern artillery. Tensions during the American Civil War (1861-1865) spurred British authorities to strengthen the city's defences further. Between 1865 and 1871, three forts (including Fort No.1 in Lauzon) were built on the Lévis heights on the south shore to provide support for the Citadel.

Today the Citadelle remains an active garrison and since 1920 is home to the Royal 22e Régiment, the Canadian Forces' sole French-language regular force infantry regiment. The Citadelle is a National Historic Site of Canada. The site receives some 200,000 visitors annually.

Comments

Your name

Website (optional)



Details

Founded: 1693
Category: Castles and fortifications in Canada

Rating

4.6/5 (based on Google user reviews)

User Reviews

Pavan Kumar (12 months ago)
This is located next to Plains of Abraham and charge entry fee and at a discount price for students and youth. This place operates tours both in French and English. Museum onsite decided to history of 22 regiment of French Canadian soldiers fought during first and second world wars and this is active place still used by the infantry. The change of guards is only during summer months starting in first week of June. I think our English guide name is Megan and she is very knowledgeable and have genuine interest in answering questions. Most of the was outside except some part inside. Dress up in layers for winter weather during winter months.
Honey Di (13 months ago)
Amazing views and very informative tour. Also got to see a cannon being fired. I'd recommend the 11am tour so that you can see the cannon fired at noon.
Myroslava Symonenko (13 months ago)
Guided tours only, as the place is an active military base, so a guaranteed informative one-hour activity for families, plus all the time you wish to spend in the museum and a good gift shop. The tour includes some indoor and outdoor time, history and present day facts. All the people there were approachable and nice. The view from the Citadelle is tremendous!
The Aviator (13 months ago)
Fantastic museum that comes to life in the mornings. The museum and the shop is fantastic! But the parade at the Citadelle is something worth waking up and coming out to watch it. Come early, and you’ll have good spots. If late, you’ll end up being relegated being to the back. The tour guides are excellent! I highly recommend getting one for your group, or band together as a group and following the guide. Your experience will be not be complete unless you learn the history of the place. Once in a lifetime experience! Totally worth waking up early and lining up at the entrance.
Mark Adley (15 months ago)
If you can go here when they have the changing of the guard it’s awesome to watch. It’s a great tourist attraction and great for families. The day we were there they were not having it but I’ve been before And it’s great
Powered by Google

Featured Historic Landmarks, Sites & Buildings

Historic Site of the week

Kromeriz Castle and Gardens

Kroměříž stands on the site of an earlier ford across the River Morava. The gardens and castle of Kroměříž are an exceptionally complete and well-preserved example of a European Baroque princely residence and its gardens and described as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

The first residence on the site was founded by bishop Stanislas Thurzo in 1497. The building was in a Late Gothic style, with a modicum of Renaissance detail. During the Thirty Years' War, the castle was sacked by the Swedish army (1643).

It was not until 1664 that a bishop from the powerful Liechtenstein family charged architect Filiberto Lucchese with renovating the palace in a Baroque style. The chief monument of Lucchese's work in Kroměříž is the Pleasure Garden in front of the castle. Upon Lucchese's death in 1666, Giovanni Pietro Tencalla completed his work on the formal garden and had the palace rebuilt in a style reminiscent of the Turinese school to which he belonged.

After the castle was gutted by a major fire in March 1752, Bishop Hamilton commissioned two leading imperial artists, Franz Anton Maulbertsch and Josef Stern, arrived at the residence in order to decorate the halls of the palace with their works. In addition to their paintings, the palace still houses an art collection, generally considered the second finest in the country, which includes Titian's last mythological painting, The Flaying of Marsyas. The largest part of the collection was acquired by Bishop Karel in Cologne in 1673. The palace also contains an outstanding musical archive and a library of 33,000 volumes.

UNESCO lists the palace and garden among the World Heritage Sites. As the nomination dossier explains, 'the castle is a good but not outstanding example of a type of aristocratic or princely residence that has survived widely in Europe. The Pleasure Garden, by contrast, is a very rare and largely intact example of a Baroque garden'. Apart from the formal parterres there is also a less formal nineteenth-century English garden, which sustained damage during floods in 1997.

Interiors of the palace were extensively used by Miloš Forman as a stand-in for Vienna's Hofburg Imperial Palace during filming of Amadeus (1984), based on the life of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, who actually never visited Kroměříž. The main audience chamber was also used in the film Immortal Beloved (1994), in the piano concerto scene.