The area around Wartau was first settled around 9000 years ago, culminating in neolithic settlements on the nearby Ochsenberg and Prochna Burg at about 3000 BC. A Merovingian fortress was built at Prochna Burg, but was destroyed around 750. While there are no written records that mention the first owner of the castle or when it was built, the wooden beams in the castle have been dated to about 1225. It was probably built as an administrative center for royal estates in the area. It may have been built by the Graubünden Freiherr von Sagogn, because around 1320 it was inherited by Count Hugo III von Werdenberg-Heiligenberg from the Freiherr von Wildenberg who was related to the Freiherr vonf Sagogn.
The castle first appears in the historical record in 1342 when Johannes von Belmont pledged it to his wife Adelheid von Klingen in exchange for 250 silver marks. In the following decades the Belmont family fought the Werdenberg-Heiligenbergs until the death of Ulrich Walter von Belmont in 1371 and the extinction of the Belmont family. The castle probably returned to the Werdenberg-Heiligenberg family and was occupied by their vassals for the next couple decades. Around 1390 the castle was owned by the related Werdenberg-Sargans. In 1393 as the two families fought for territory, the castle was besieged for eleven days. In 1399 it returned to the Counts of Werdenberg-Heiligenberg.
During the 14th century the castle was expanded several times, but by the 15th century it began to be neglected. In 1414 Count Rudolf II sold Wartau to his cousin Count Friedrich VII of Toggenburg, but six days later converted the sale into collateral for a loan. The Counts of Werdenberg-Heiligenberg died out in 1428, before they could redeem the loan. Eight years later Friedrich VII died, ending the Toggenburg line and starting the Old Zürich War over the Toggenburg inheritance. After the war it was inherited by the Freiherr von Thierstein, but after their extinction it passed through the von Limburg, Montfort-Tettnang and Sax-Misox families before it was sold in 1485 to the city of Lucerne. However, Wartau was too far from Lucerne and in 1493 they sold it to the Barons of Kastelwart. The Barons were faithful supporters of the Habsburgs, which caused conflicts with the villagers who supported the Swiss Confederation. In 1498 they sold the castle and lands to the Swabian von Hewen family. In the following year Matthias von Kastelwart died in the Battle of Dornachagainst the Swiss. In 1517 the Hewen family sold the castle and lands to the Canton of Glarus. However, the Glarus appointed Landvogt lived at Werdenberg Castle and so the castle at Wartau lost its administrative role and was abandoned around 1530.
Following the collapse of the Helvetic Republic and the creation of the Canton of St. Gallen in 1803, Wartau became part of the new Canton. The castle ruins were sold in 1818 to a private owner. It was donated to the municipality in 1911 and restored in 1932. In 1982 it was again repaired and restored, followed by a survey and excavations in 2002.
The castle consists of either two square towers built next to each other or a single rectangular tower which was divided into two. The north-eastern tower was about four stories tall, while the south-western tower was lower and divided into apartments. Around 1300 a crenellated parapet was added around the top of both towers. In the 14th century an additional story was added to the top of both towers along with new parapets and a flat roof. The new upper story is still visible as it was built from different stone. Around 1500 the upper story was rebuilt. The castle is surrounded on three sides by a ring wall, which ran along a steep cliff.References:
The Church of St Eustace was built between 1532-1632. St Eustace"s is considered a masterpiece of late Gothic architecture. The church’s reputation was strong enough of the time for it to be chosen as the location for a young Louis XIV to receive communion. Mozart also chose the sanctuary as the location for his mother’s funeral. Among those baptised here as children were Richelieu, Jeanne-Antoinette Poisson, future Madame de Pompadour and Molière, who was also married here in the 17th century. The last rites for Anne of Austria, Turenne and Mirabeau were pronounced within its walls. Marie de Gournay is buried there.
The origins of Saint Eustache date back to 13th century. The church became a parish church in 1223, thanks to a man named Jean Alais who achieved this by taxing the baskets of fish sold nearby, as granted by King Philip Augustus. To thank such divine generosity, Alais constructed a chapel dedicated to Sainte-Agnès, a Roman martyr. The construction of the current church began in 1532, the work not being finally completed until 1637. The name of the church refers to Saint Eustace, a Roman general of the second century AD who was burned, along with his family, for converting to Christianity, and it is believed that it was the transfer of a relic of Saint Eustache from the Abbey to Saint-Denis to the Church of Saint Eustache which resulted in its naming. Jeanne Baptiste d"Albert de Luynes was baptised here.
According to tourist literature on-site, during the French Revolution the church, like most churches in Paris, was desecrated, looted, and used for a time as a barn. The church was restored after the Revolution had run its course and remains in use today. Several impressive paintings by Rubens remain in the church today. Each summer, organ concerts commemorate the premieres of Berlioz’s Te Deum and Liszt’s Christus here in 1886.
The church is an example of a Gothic structure clothed in Renaissance detail. The church is relatively short in length at 105m, but its interior is 33.45m high to the vaulting. At the main façade, the left tower has been completed in Renaissance style, while the right tower remains a stump. The front and rear aspects provide a remarkable contrast between the comparatively sober classical front and the exuberant rear, which integrates Gothic forms and organization with Classical details. The L"écoute sculpture by Henri de Miller appears outside the church, to the south. A Keith Haring sculpture stands in a chapel of the church.
The Chapel of the Virgin was built in 1640 and restored from 1801 to 1804. It was inaugurated by Pius VII on the 22nd of December, 1804 when he came to Paris for the coronation of Napoleon. The apse chapel, with a ribbed cul-de-four vault, has at its centre a sculpture of the Virgin and Child of Jean-Baptiste Pigalle that the painter Thomas Couture highlighted by three large paintings.
With 8,000 pipes, the organ is reputed to be the largest pipe organ in France, surpassing the organs of Saint Sulpice and Notre Dame de Paris. The organ originally constructed by P.-A. Ducroquet was powerful enough for the premiere of Hector Berlioz" titanic Te Deum to be performed at St-Eustache in 1855.