Šumber castle was built at the site of the prehistoric hillfort. The site was first mentioned in documents in 872, and in 950 when Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII Porfirogenet confirmed the presence of Slavs in these villages. In 1260, has passed into the possession of vassals of the Counts of Gorizia, the Austrian noble family Schönberg by which it got its name. Among the signatories of the peace treaty in 1274 between the Aquleia patriarch Raimondo della Torre and the Count of Gorizia Albert I, there was Teodorich de Sumberg. As a vassal of Gorizia Count Albert III, Dietrich von Schonberg in 1341 attack and plundered the countryside of Venetian Motovun. Since 1367, when counts of Gorizia became extinct, was inherited by Habsburg family and was part of the Pazin County.
At the end of the 14th century, after the extinction of the family Schönberg and marriage of Anna Schönberg with Ivan Gutenegg, the lord of Kožljak, it was connected to Kožljak estate. In 1444, Anna sold the castle to the lords of Kršan, Juraj Kerstlein (Karscheyner). After Labin in 1420 came under Venetian rule, Šumber became a border fortress between the Austrian March of Istria, and Venetian part of Istria. In 1420 Venetians occupied it but they also accepted the offer of lord of Kršan to buy the village. Therefore, it was converted into a Renaissance castle by additions of corner round semi-tower. In the war between Emperor Maximilian and Venice in 1508, Gaspar Karscheyner lost Kršan and Šumber, but in 1509 they were returned. Gaspar repaired Kršan, but in 1515 sold Šumber to the family Herberstein, lords of Lupoglav.
The Herberstein family ruled it only briefly as in 1525 exchanged it with Ferdinand I Habsburg for Reitberg. When Ferdinand became king of Croatia in 1527, he gave it to Senj and Klis captain Petar Kružić. After Kružić died in 1537, was inherited by his daughter Margareta, and with marriage, to Senj nobleman Ivan Sinković. As Sinković died in 1616 without male heirs, the inheritance have taken his daughters. At that time it was exposed to frequent Venetian attacks. Under the pretense that its lords are helping Uskoks (which was true, because many Uskoks really found refuge on the Istrian properties of Kružić and Sinković), in 1612 was devastated by the Venetian mercenaries. When the Uskoks attacked and plundered Plomin in 1614, Šumber was again exposed to Venetian devastation. At the beginning of Uskok War, 1616, Šumber again suffers Venetian attacks and looting, which ceased only in 1617.
After the completion of the Uskok War in 1617, its defensive function was converted into a comfortable residence. In 1626 became the property of Prince Johann Ulrich von Eggenberg, whose son Anton in 1634 sold Šumber for 42,000 florins to Baron Pompeo II Brigido of Trieste, whose estate were around Lupoglav (i.e. Lupoglav, Šumber, Lesičina). This family continued to own the property until the end of feudalism in 1848.
It's a small fortress with polygonal layout defended by two round half-towers in south-eastern and south-western part, next to which is on the west wall the main entrance to the fort. On the inner side of the southern wall are the remains of a long and narrow one-story palace, and another small house is located in the northeast corner of the castle. Although the castle is largely preserved, at least according to Valvasor views from 1680, the tower and the residential wings were much higher than they are today.References:
Derbent is the southernmost city in Russia, occupying the narrow gateway between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus Mountains connecting the Eurasian steppes to the north and the Iranian Plateau to the south. Derbent claims to be the oldest city in Russia with historical documentation dating to the 8th century BCE. Due to its strategic location, over the course of history, the city changed ownership many times, particularly among the Persian, Arab, Mongol, Timurid, Shirvan and Iranian kingdoms.
Derbent has archaeological structures over 5,000 years old. As a result of this geographic peculiarity, the city developed between two walls, stretching from the mountains to the sea. These fortifications were continuously employed for a millennium and a half, longer than any other extant fortress in the world.
A traditionally and historically Iranian city, the first intensive settlement in the Derbent area dates from the 8th century BC. The site was intermittently controlled by the Persian monarchs, starting from the 6th century BC. Until the 4th century AD, it was part of Caucasian Albania which was a satrap of the Achaemenid Persian Empire. In the 5th century Derbent functioned as a border fortress and the seat of Sassanid Persians. Because of its strategic position on the northern branch of the Silk Route, the fortress was contested by the Khazars in the course of the Khazar-Arab Wars. In 654, Derbent was captured by the Arabs.
The Sassanid fortress does not exist any more, as the famous Derbent fortress as it stands today was built from the 12th century onward. Derbent became a strong military outpost and harbour of the Sassanid empire. During the 5th and 6th centuries, Derbent also became an important center for spreading the Christian faith in the Caucasus.
The site continued to be of great strategic importance until the 19th century. Today the fortifications consist of two parallel defence walls and Naryn-Kala Citadel. The walls are 3.6km long, stretching from the sea up to the mountains. They were built from stone and had 73 defence towers. 9 out of the 14 original gates remain.
In Naryn-Kala Citadel most of the old buildings, including a palace and a church, are now in ruins. It also holds baths and one of the oldest mosques in the former USSR.
In 2003, UNESCO included the old part of Derbent with traditional buildings in the World Heritage List.