Šumber castle was built at the site of the prehistoric hillfort. The site was first mentioned in documents in 872, and in 950 when Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII Porfirogenet confirmed the presence of Slavs in these villages. In 1260, has passed into the possession of vassals of the Counts of Gorizia, the Austrian noble family Schönberg by which it got its name. Among the signatories of the peace treaty in 1274 between the Aquleia patriarch Raimondo della Torre and the Count of Gorizia Albert I, there was Teodorich de Sumberg. As a vassal of Gorizia Count Albert III, Dietrich von Schonberg in 1341 attack and plundered the countryside of Venetian Motovun. Since 1367, when counts of Gorizia became extinct, was inherited by Habsburg family and was part of the Pazin County.
At the end of the 14th century, after the extinction of the family Schönberg and marriage of Anna Schönberg with Ivan Gutenegg, the lord of Kožljak, it was connected to Kožljak estate. In 1444, Anna sold the castle to the lords of Kršan, Juraj Kerstlein (Karscheyner). After Labin in 1420 came under Venetian rule, Šumber became a border fortress between the Austrian March of Istria, and Venetian part of Istria. In 1420 Venetians occupied it but they also accepted the offer of lord of Kršan to buy the village. Therefore, it was converted into a Renaissance castle by additions of corner round semi-tower. In the war between Emperor Maximilian and Venice in 1508, Gaspar Karscheyner lost Kršan and Šumber, but in 1509 they were returned. Gaspar repaired Kršan, but in 1515 sold Šumber to the family Herberstein, lords of Lupoglav.
The Herberstein family ruled it only briefly as in 1525 exchanged it with Ferdinand I Habsburg for Reitberg. When Ferdinand became king of Croatia in 1527, he gave it to Senj and Klis captain Petar Kružić. After Kružić died in 1537, was inherited by his daughter Margareta, and with marriage, to Senj nobleman Ivan Sinković. As Sinković died in 1616 without male heirs, the inheritance have taken his daughters. At that time it was exposed to frequent Venetian attacks. Under the pretense that its lords are helping Uskoks (which was true, because many Uskoks really found refuge on the Istrian properties of Kružić and Sinković), in 1612 was devastated by the Venetian mercenaries. When the Uskoks attacked and plundered Plomin in 1614, Šumber was again exposed to Venetian devastation. At the beginning of Uskok War, 1616, Šumber again suffers Venetian attacks and looting, which ceased only in 1617.
After the completion of the Uskok War in 1617, its defensive function was converted into a comfortable residence. In 1626 became the property of Prince Johann Ulrich von Eggenberg, whose son Anton in 1634 sold Šumber for 42,000 florins to Baron Pompeo II Brigido of Trieste, whose estate were around Lupoglav (i.e. Lupoglav, Šumber, Lesičina). This family continued to own the property until the end of feudalism in 1848.
It's a small fortress with polygonal layout defended by two round half-towers in south-eastern and south-western part, next to which is on the west wall the main entrance to the fort. On the inner side of the southern wall are the remains of a long and narrow one-story palace, and another small house is located in the northeast corner of the castle. Although the castle is largely preserved, at least according to Valvasor views from 1680, the tower and the residential wings were much higher than they are today.References:
The Mosque–Cathedral of Córdoba, also known as the Great Mosque of Córdoba and the Mezquita is regarded as one of the most accomplished monuments of Moorish architecture.
According to a traditional account, a small Visigoth church, the Catholic Basilica of Saint Vincent of Lérins, originally stood on the site. In 784 Abd al-Rahman I ordered construction of the Great Mosque, which was considerably expanded by later Muslim rulers. The mosque underwent numerous subsequent changes: Abd al-Rahman II ordered a new minaret, while in 961 Al-Hakam II enlarged the building and enriched the Mihrab. The last of such reforms was carried out by Almanzor in 987. It was connected to the Caliph"s palace by a raised walkway, mosques within the palaces being the tradition for previous Islamic rulers – as well as Christian Kings who built their palaces adjacent to churches. The Mezquita reached its current dimensions in 987 with the completion of the outer naves and courtyard.
In 1236, Córdoba was conquered by King Ferdinand III of Castile, and the centre of the mosque was converted into a Catholic cathedral. Alfonso X oversaw the construction of the Villaviciosa Chapel and the Royal Chapel within the mosque. The kings who followed added further Christian features, such as King Henry II rebuilding the chapel in the 14th century. The minaret of the mosque was also converted to the bell tower of the cathedral. It was adorned with Santiago de Compostela"s captured cathedral bells. Following a windstorm in 1589, the former minaret was further reinforced by encasing it within a new structure.
The most significant alteration was the building of a Renaissance cathedral nave in the middle of the expansive structure. The insertion was constructed by permission of Charles V, king of Castile and Aragon. Artisans and architects continued to add to the existing structure until the late 18th century.
The building"s floor plan is seen to be parallel to some of the earliest mosques built from the very beginning of Islam. It had a rectangular prayer hall with aisles arranged perpendicular to the qibla, the direction towards which Muslims pray. The prayer hall was large and flat, with timber ceilings held up by arches of horseshoe-like appearance.
In planning the mosque, the architects incorporated a number of Roman columns with choice capitals. Some of the columns were already in the Gothic structure; others were sent from various regions of Iberia as presents from the governors of provinces. Ivory, jasper, porphyry, gold, silver, copper, and brass were used in the decorations. Marvellous mosaics and azulejos were designed. Later, the immense temple embodied all the styles of Morisco architecture into one composition.
The building is most notable for its arcaded hypostyle hall, with 856 columns of jasper, onyx, marble, granite and porphyry. These were made from pieces of the Roman temple that had occupied the site previously, as well as other Roman buildings, such as the Mérida amphitheatre. The double arches were an innovation, permitting higher ceilings than would otherwise be possible with relatively low columns. The double arches consist of a lower horseshoe arch and an upper semi-circular arch.