In the prehistoric age on the hill of San Giusto there was a castelliere (fortified borough), which in the Roman age became an important urban centre. The fortress, built by the Venetians in the Middle Ages, was pulled down in the 14th century by will of the Patriarch of Aquileia and, in 1470 only, it was rebuilt by Friedrich II of Habsburg; the square tower and the two-storey building, which today houses the Castle Museum, date back to this period.
Under the rule of the Republic of Venice, which at the beginning of the 16th century had re-established its rule over Trieste, the castle's defences were strengthened and, under the Austrian rule again, the works continued until the building, in 1630, of the large ramparts and of the linking walls.
The fortified complex can be accessed from a ramp ending in a wooden drawbridge, over a not very wide moat; after crossing the cross-vaulted hall, you will reach the Piazzale delle Milizie (Square of the Troops), where stairs and allures lead to the ramparts.Since 1930 the castle has been a property of the Municipality, which has equipped it for tourist purposes and uses it for cultural events, shows and temporary exhibitions.
Since 2001 the Lalio rampart of the Castle of San Giusto has been housing the new Lapidario Tergestino, which preserves all the Roman stone finds that were previously displayed in the Orto Lapidario garden.References:
Augustusburg Palace represents one of the first examples of Rococo creations in Germany. For the Cologne elector and archbishop Clemens August of the House of Wittelsbach it was the favourite residence. In 1725 the Westphalian architect Johann Conrad Schlaun was commissioned by Clemens August to begin the construction of the palace on the ruins of a medieval moated castle.
In 1728, the Bavarian court architect François de Cuvilliés took over and made the palace into one of the most glorious residences of its time. Until its completion in 1768, numerous outstanding artists of European renown contributed to its beauty. A prime example of the calibre of artists employed here is Balthasar Neumann, who created the design for the magnificent staircase, an enchanting creation full of dynamism and elegance. The magical interplay of architecture, sculpture, painting and garden design made the Brühl Palaces a masterpiece of German Rococo.
UNESCO honoured history and present of the Rococo Palaces by inscribing Augustusburg Palace – together with Falkenlust Palace and their extensive gardens – on the World Heritage List in 1984. From 1949 onwards, Augustusburg Palace was used for representative purposes by the German Federal President and the Federal Government for many decades.
In 1728, Dominique Girard designed the palace gardens according to French models. Owing to constant renovation and care, it is today one of the most authentic examples of 18th century garden design in Europe. Next to the Baroque gardens, Peter Joseph Lenné redesigned the forested areas based on English landscaping models. Today it is a wonderful place to have a walk.