Nesactium was an ancient fortified town and hill fort of the Histri tribe. In pre-Roman times, Nesactium, ruled by its legendary king Epulon, was the capital of the tribal population of the peninsula called Histri, who were also connected to the prehistoric Castellieri culture. Some theories state a later Celtic influence, but who they were and where they came from has never been discovered for certain. It is believed that their main economic activities were trade and piracy all over the ancient Mediterranean Sea.
In 177 BC, the town was conquered by the Romans and destroyed. Rebuilt upon the original Histrian pattern, it was a Roman town until 46–45 BC, when the Ancient Greek colony Polai was elevated to Pietas Iulia, today Pula. The town was located on the ancient road Via Flavia, which connected Trieste to Dalmatia. The area was abandoned by the Romans in the 6th century, following the Slav invasions.
At the end of the fourth century, the walls were renewed. Two churches were added, next to each other, between the bathhouse and the forum. The southern one, the largest, was probably dedicated to Mary and used for the daily ceremonies; the northern one was used for baptisms and religious ceremonies. There are traces of fire, which may have something to do with the Avar attacks on Histria in 600 and 611.References:
Narikala is an ancient fortress overlooking Tbilisi, the capital of Georgia, and the Kura River. The fortress consists of two walled sections on a steep hill between the sulphur baths and the botanical gardens of Tbilisi. On the lower court there is the recently restored St Nicholas church. Newly built in 1996–1997, it replaces the original 13th-century church that was destroyed in a fire. The new church is of 'prescribed cross' type, having doors on three sides. The internal part of the church is decorated with the frescos showing scenes both from the Bible and history of Georgia.
The fortress was established in the 4th century and it was a Persian citadel. It was considerably expanded by the Umayyads in the 7th century and later, by king David the Builder (1089–1125). Most of extant fortifications date from the 16th and 17th centuries. In 1827, parts of the fortress were damaged by an earthquake and demolished.