The first castle in Zug was probably a wooden manor house built around 1000 and owned by a ministerialis family in service to either the Counts of Aargau or of Lenzburg. Based on archeological excavations, it was built on an island between two small streams and surrounded by a wooden palisade. While the local nobleman occupied the house and island, his men built a village along the streams. Later the steams were dammed to prevent flooding.
Around the end of the 11th century, the original house expanded. A 70–90 centimeters tall stone wall was built around the house. However all the buildings inside the wall remained wooden. According to tradition, the castle was attacked and damaged during the 12th century.
In the 13th century, Zug came under the control of the Kyburgs. They founded the city of Zug (around 1200) and had the ruined castle was rebuilt in stone. A 9 by 9 m tower with 2 m thick first story walls was built. The walls taper slightly and upper story walls are only about 1.5 m thick to a height of 16 m. The tower was surrounded by two semi-circular walls to the north and east. By the end of the 13th century the town was surrounded by an, up to 16 m high, wall and additional defensive works.
When the Kyburg family died out in 1264, the city and castle of Zug were inherited by the Habsburgs. The castle living quarters were expanded and a number of buildings were added between the tower and city wall. After the Habsburg defeat at the Battle of Morgarten in 1315, Zug became a Habsburg stronghold in an increasing hostile Swiss Confederation. The surrounding cities of Zurich, Lucerne and Glarus joined the Confederation and the nearby villages began to side with the Swiss, however, Zug city remained strongly tied to the Habsburgs. When the Confederation invaded Zug, the surrounding villages immediately surrendered. After a two-week siege, Zug Castle and city fell to the Swiss. The castle was not damaged in the siege and became a Confederation castle. After Zug joined the Confederation as a full member, the castle gradually lost its importance.
Around 1555 Johannes Zurlauben had the old wall demolished and a decorative wall built around the castle. He had a half-timbered structure built on the west side of the tower. In the 16th century the old Habsburg living quarters were expanded and connected to the Zurlauben structure.
The castle was purchased by the municipality of Zug in 1945 from the Hediger family and later renovated in 1982. Recently, the castle contained the Zug town and cantonal museum's permanent collection along with other exhibits. In 2012, the museum was closed for refurbishment and re-opened in November 2013 with a new permanent collection.References:
Derbent is the southernmost city in Russia, occupying the narrow gateway between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus Mountains connecting the Eurasian steppes to the north and the Iranian Plateau to the south. Derbent claims to be the oldest city in Russia with historical documentation dating to the 8th century BCE. Due to its strategic location, over the course of history, the city changed ownership many times, particularly among the Persian, Arab, Mongol, Timurid, Shirvan and Iranian kingdoms.
Derbent has archaeological structures over 5,000 years old. As a result of this geographic peculiarity, the city developed between two walls, stretching from the mountains to the sea. These fortifications were continuously employed for a millennium and a half, longer than any other extant fortress in the world.
A traditionally and historically Iranian city, the first intensive settlement in the Derbent area dates from the 8th century BC. The site was intermittently controlled by the Persian monarchs, starting from the 6th century BC. Until the 4th century AD, it was part of Caucasian Albania which was a satrap of the Achaemenid Persian Empire. In the 5th century Derbent functioned as a border fortress and the seat of Sassanid Persians. Because of its strategic position on the northern branch of the Silk Route, the fortress was contested by the Khazars in the course of the Khazar-Arab Wars. In 654, Derbent was captured by the Arabs.
The Sassanid fortress does not exist any more, as the famous Derbent fortress as it stands today was built from the 12th century onward. Derbent became a strong military outpost and harbour of the Sassanid empire. During the 5th and 6th centuries, Derbent also became an important center for spreading the Christian faith in the Caucasus.
The site continued to be of great strategic importance until the 19th century. Today the fortifications consist of two parallel defence walls and Naryn-Kala Citadel. The walls are 3.6km long, stretching from the sea up to the mountains. They were built from stone and had 73 defence towers. 9 out of the 14 original gates remain.
In Naryn-Kala Citadel most of the old buildings, including a palace and a church, are now in ruins. It also holds baths and one of the oldest mosques in the former USSR.
In 2003, UNESCO included the old part of Derbent with traditional buildings in the World Heritage List.