Fiholm was first mentioned in 1275 in the letter of the king Valdemar Birgersson. In 1404 Eric of Pomerania donated it to the Eskilstuna monastery hosted by powerful Order of Saint John. After After Reformation the monastery was demolished and in 1562 received the Privy Council Kristiernson Gabriel Oxenstierna Fiholm as a fiefdom of King Erik XIV.

When Axel Oxenstierna in 1617 inherited Fiholm, he planned to build a castle. He hired Nicodemus Tessin the Elder as an architect. Two magnificent wings in the Franco-Dutch Renaissance style was completed in 1642. The actual main building was designed in 1642 by the French architect Simon de la Vallée in the Dutch Renaissance style, but it was never built.

Today the castle is owned by Charlott and Goran Mörner. There is a café and gift shop in a barn from 1864.

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