Around the third quarter of the 12th century Freiherr von Weissenburg donated land along the Simmen river to the Augustinian order for a monastery. The monastery was first mentioned in 1228 along with the surrounding village. In 1368 the Freiherr von Brandis inherited the Weissenburg lands including patronage of the monastery. It continued to expand during the 13th and 14th centuries as nobles donated lands and the monastery bought estates.
The monastery church of St. Mary became the burial church of the Freiherrs. In 1439 the city of Bern acquired the Weissenburg lands including the monastery and the village. In 1486 they forced the monastery to accept the authority of the college of canons of the Cathedral of Bern. In 1528, Bern adopted the new faith of the Protestant Reformation and secularized the monastery. The monastery church became the parish church of newly created parish.References:
Roman Walls of Lugo are an exceptional architectural, archaeological and constructive legacy of Roman engineering, dating from the 3rd and 4th centuries AD. The Walls are built of internal and external stone facings of slate with some granite, with a core filling of a conglomerate of slate slabs and worked stone pieces from Roman buildings, interlocked with lime mortar.
Their total length of 2117 m in the shape of an oblong rectangle occupies an area of 1.68 ha. Their height varies between 8 and 10 m, with a width of 4.2 m, reaching 7 m in some specific points. The walls still contain 85 external towers, 10 gates (five of which are original and five that were opened in modern times), four staircases and two ramps providing access to the walkway along the top of the walls, one of which is internal and the other external. Each tower contained access stairs leading from the intervallum to the wall walk of town wall, of which a total of 21 have been discovered to date.
The defences of Lugo are the most complete and best preserved example of Roman military architecture in the Western Roman Empire.
Despite the renovation work carried out, the walls conserve their original layout and the construction features associated with their defensive purpose, with walls, battlements, towers, fortifications, both modern and original gates and stairways, and a moat.
Since they were built, the walls have defined the layout and growth of the city, which was declared a Historical-Artistic Ensemble in 1973, forming a part of it and becoming an emblematic structure that can be freely accessed to walk along. The local inhabitants and visitors alike have used them as an area for enjoyment and as a part of urban life for centuries.
The fortifications were added to UNESCO"s World Heritage List in late 2000 and are a popular tourist attraction.