The location of Przemyśl castle and the earlier settlement lay on an important river crossing on a trade route running from the Black Sea to the Baltic Sea and through the Carpathian passes, and was a site of a fortified grod belonging to the Lendians (Lendizi), who were a West Slavic tribe descended from the White Croats.
In 1018, the Polish king Bolesław I Chrobry recaptured Przemyśl and built a stone Romanesque rotunda and palatium complex. Later, Casimir III the Great was responsible for the building of a Gothic castle in 1340, of which only a gate in Ogive style survives to this day. The buildings were damaged by the invading Vlachs in 1498, and rebuilt once again for Piotr Kmita Sobieński.
Przemyśl town elder Marcin Krasicki began the reconstruction of the castle in the Renaissance style in 1616. The works were supervised by the Italian architect Galleazzo Appiani. Towers were raised and attics finished, and more housing was attached, however after Krasicki's death, the reconstruction of the castle stopped.
From 1759 to 1762, Przemyśl mayor and future Polish king Stanislaw Poniatowski rebuilt the castle, rebuilding the ruins of two towers, the wall between them, building a new castle and adding stepped buttresses.
After the partition of the Commonwealth, the Austrians stationed troops in the castle. Eventually in 1865, the castle was handed over the city where from 1884 the dramatic society Fredreum has been based. During World War I, the Austrians held two thousand Russian prisoners in the castle. More restoration of the castle was carried out in 1920, and in 1980 two corner towers and curtain wall between them were rebuilt.References:
The Castle of Gruyères is one of the most famous in Switzerland. It was built between 1270 and 1282, following the typical square plan of the fortifications in Savoy. It was the property of the Counts of Gruyères until the bankruptcy of the Count Michel in 1554. His creditors the cantons of Fribourg and Bern shared his earldom. From 1555 to 1798 the castle became residence to the bailiffs and then to the prefects sent by Fribourg.
In 1849 the castle was sold to the Bovy and Balland families, who used the castle as their summer residency and restored it. The castle was then bought back by the canton of Fribourg in 1938, made into a museum and opened to the public. Since 1993, a foundation ensures the conservation as well as the highlighting of the building and the art collection.
The castle is the home of three capes of the Order of the Golden Fleece. They were part of the war booty captured by the Swiss Confederates (which included troops from Gruyères) at the Battle of Morat against Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy in 1476. As Charles the Bold was celebrating the anniversary of his father's death, one of the capes is a black velvet sacerdotal vestment with Philip the Good's emblem sewn into it.
A collection of landscapes by 19th century artists Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot, Barthélemy Menn and others are on display in the castle.