The location of Przemyśl castle and the earlier settlement lay on an important river crossing on a trade route running from the Black Sea to the Baltic Sea and through the Carpathian passes, and was a site of a fortified grod belonging to the Lendians (Lendizi), who were a West Slavic tribe descended from the White Croats.
In 1018, the Polish king Bolesław I Chrobry recaptured Przemyśl and built a stone Romanesque rotunda and palatium complex. Later, Casimir III the Great was responsible for the building of a Gothic castle in 1340, of which only a gate in Ogive style survives to this day. The buildings were damaged by the invading Vlachs in 1498, and rebuilt once again for Piotr Kmita Sobieński.
Przemyśl town elder Marcin Krasicki began the reconstruction of the castle in the Renaissance style in 1616. The works were supervised by the Italian architect Galleazzo Appiani. Towers were raised and attics finished, and more housing was attached, however after Krasicki's death, the reconstruction of the castle stopped.
From 1759 to 1762, Przemyśl mayor and future Polish king Stanislaw Poniatowski rebuilt the castle, rebuilding the ruins of two towers, the wall between them, building a new castle and adding stepped buttresses.
After the partition of the Commonwealth, the Austrians stationed troops in the castle. Eventually in 1865, the castle was handed over the city where from 1884 the dramatic society Fredreum has been based. During World War I, the Austrians held two thousand Russian prisoners in the castle. More restoration of the castle was carried out in 1920, and in 1980 two corner towers and curtain wall between them were rebuilt.References:
Craigmillar is one of Scotland’s most perfectly preserved castles. It began as a simple tower-house residence. Gradually, over time, it developed into a complex of structures and spaces, as subsequent owners attempted to improve its comfort and amenity. As a result, there are many nooks and crannies to explore.
The surrounding gardens and parkland were also important. The present-day Craigmillar Castle Park has fascinating reminders of the castle’s days as a rural retreat on the edge of Scotland’s capital city.
At the core lies the original, late-14th-century tower house, among the first of this form of castle built in Scotland. It stands 17m high to the battlements, has walls almost 3m thick, and holds a warren of rooms, including a fine great hall on the first floor.
‘Queen Mary’s Room’, also on the first floor, is where Mary is said to have slept when staying at Craigmillar. However, it is more likely she occupied a multi-roomed apartment elsewhere in the courtyard, probably in the east range.
Sir Simon Preston was a loyal supporter of Queen Mary, whom she appointed as Provost of Edinburgh. In this capacity, he was her host for her first night as a prisoner, at his townhouse in the High Street, on 15 June 1567. She was taken to Lochleven Castle the following day.
The west range was rebuilt after 1660 as a family residence for the Gilmour family.
The 15th-century courtyard wall is well preserved, complete with gunholes shaped like inverted keyholes. Ancillary buildings lie within it, including a private family chapel.