The Cathedral of Przemyśl is the main church of the Archdiocese of Przemyśl, located at the Cathedral Square in the Old Town. The first cathedral of the Diocese was a wooden church which existed from 1375 to 1412, standing in the square beside the present church of the Sacred Heart of Jesus. From 1412 - 1460 a Ruthenian Orthodox cathedral built of stone stood in the courtyard of Przemyśl Castle which it was strongly associated with.
Construction of the present cathedral in the Gothic style began with the Chapter of Bishop Nicholas Błażejowski in 1495. Only the walls and pillars remain from this building. The reconstruction was completed in the first decades of the sixteenth century. In 1578 the mayor of Przemysl, Secretary of the Crown - Jan Tomasz Drohojowski (d. 1605), founded the present chapel of the Blessed Sacrament. Founded on the site earlier rotunda St. Nicholas. Because of the continuous threat of incursions of the Tartars and Wallachians, it is a fortified church, surrounded by a wall and is equipped with a cannon. It is currently the seat of Archbishop Adam Szal.
In the chancel are the stone foundations of the late Romanesque rotunda of the first half of the thirteenth century cathedral. The seventeenth-century Gothic cathedral served the bishops of Przemysl to the beginning of the eighteenth century. Bishop Aleksander Antoni Fredro decided to rebuild in the Baroque style, these works were performed in the years 1724-1744. In the chancel of the Great Altar was placed huge baroque and new stalls. There are two domed chapels. One of them is Drohojowski chapel of 1578, and the other one is the late baroque Fredro chapel built in 1724.
In 1733 the roof collapsed, destroying part of church and was rebuilt afterwards and completed in 1744. At the turn of the 19th century there was another rebuilding, restoring the oldest parts of the church, in a Gothic style.References:
German crusaders known as the Livonian Brothers of the Sword began construction of the Cēsis castle (Wenden) near the hill fort in 1209. When the castle was enlarged and fortified, it served as the residence for the Order's Master from 1237 till 1561, with periodic interruptions. Its ruins are some of the most majestic castle ruins in the Baltic states. Once the most important castle of the Livonian Order, it was the official residence for the masters of the order.
In 1577, during the Livonian War, the garrison destroyed the castle to prevent it from falling into the control of Ivan the Terrible, who was decisively defeated in the Battle of Wenden (1578).
In 1598 it was incorporated into the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Wenden Voivodship was created here. In 1620 Wenden was conquered by Sweden. It was rebuilt afterwards, but was destroyed again in 1703 during the Great Northern War by the Russian army and left in a ruined state. Already from the end of the 16th century, the premises of the Order's castle were adjusted to the requirements of the Cēsis Castle estate. When in 1777 the Cēsis Castle estate was obtained by Count Carl Sievers, he had his new residence house built on the site of the eastern block of the castle, joining its end wall with the fortification tower.
Since 1949, the Cēsis History Museum has been located in this New Castle of the Cēsis Castle estate. The front yard of the New Castle is enclosed by a granary and a stable-coach house, which now houses the Exhibition Hall of the Museum. Beside the granary there is the oldest brewery in Latvia, Cēsu alus darītava, which was built in 1878 during the later Count Sievers' time, but its origins date back to the period of the Livonian Order. Further on, the Cēsis Castle park is situated, which was laid out in 1812. The park has the romantic characteristic of that time, with its winding footpaths, exotic plants, and the waters of the pond reflecting the castle's ruins. Nowadays also one of the towers is open for tourists.