Castles and fortifications in Spain

San Romualdo Castle

Neither the origins nor the date of construction of San Romualdo Castle is certain, although historians are fairly sure that this castle dates back to medieval times. Built in the Mudéjar style, it was first mentioned in 1268. It is thought to have been used as both convent and fortress. The castle was officially declared as a historic monument by the Spanish authorities in 1931 and is easily located near the town centr ...
Founded: 13th century | Location: San Fernando, Spain

San Damián Fortress

Fuerte de San Damián was built in the early 17th century. It was abandoned already in the early 18th century and reconstructed in the mid-19th century. Today it is used as an exhibition hall.
Founded: 17th century | Location: Ribadeo, Spain

San Martin del Castañar Castle

San Martin del Castañar Castle was built in the 15th century. Now there are remains of its towers. The building, made in blocks of granite and masonry, consisted of two towers linked by a central body of rooms, protected by an approximately circular enclosure with some cubes and practicable pointed arch doors.
Founded: 15th century | Location: San Martín del Castañar, Spain

Vélez-Málaga Castle

Velez-Malaga’s Alcazaba, or ‘Fortaleza’ as it’s more commonly known, was built in the 10th century. Originally, it was intended not to defend but to subdue the local population, who had traditionally caused a lot of problems for the Moorish rulers. Built on the tallest hill in the immediate area, it was the perfect site from a military point of view, affording long distance views of oncoming enemies and an easily ...
Founded: 10th century AD | Location: Vélez-Málaga, Spain

Castrojeriz Castle

Castrojeriz village is considered one of the landmarks of historic interest in the Camino de Santiago. Its rich history may take up consideration as castro Visigoth, or perhaps, also, Roman fort, (they say was founded by Julius Caesar) in whose castle was developed important battles between Christians and Moors. The first mention of this castle dates from the 9th century during the skirmishes with the Muslim forces. Ther ...
Founded: 9th century AD | Location: Castrojeriz, Spain

Torres de Altamira

Torres de Altamira is a ruined castle in Brión, connected to powerful Moscoco family. It was built in the 9th century AD and rebuilt in 1471. In the 17th century it was in bad condition and today mainly towers remain.
Founded: 9th century AD | Location: Brión, Spain

Magalia Castle

Magalia Castle-palace is highlighted by its fortifications, crowned by two large defence towers, while inside is like a refined renaissance residential Palace for accommodation and leisure. Located in a privileged and natural geographic enclave, its installations are adapted to today’s needs to make it the ideal place to combine work and relaxation, with all the comforts of a modern hotel and the charm of a mansion. Bu ...
Founded: 1533 | Location: Las Navas del Marqués, Spain

Fuensaldaña Castle

Fuensaldaña Castle construction started in the 13th century, but it is not until the 15th century that the structure acquires today"s configuration. It was built by the Vivero family. The family became linked to the region"s history when the future Catholic Monarchs got married in their castle. Inside, the building was shaped as a "U" around the cortyard, which today has been made into the parliament ...
Founded: 13th century | Location: Fuensaldaña, Spain

Medina-Sidonia Castle

Medina-Sidonia Castle was originally a Roman castellum, converted in the Moorish castle in the 11th century. The curren castle appearance dates from the 15th century, built by Enrique de Guzmán, 2nd Duke of Medina Sidonia. In was used by as a headquarters of French Army in the war of early 19th century.
Founded: 15th century | Location: Spain, Spain

Coracera Castle

Coracera castle was built by Álvaro de Luna in the 15th century, as a residence and hunting lodge. However, there are references to a previous construction, dating from the time of Alfonso VIII of Castile in the 12th and 13th centuries. The castle is in a good state, as a result of several restoration works.
Founded: 15th century | Location: San Martín de Valdeiglesias, Spain

Montemayor del Río Castle

Montemayor del Río Castle probably doesn"t date back to before the 15th century, and has more the character of a palace than of a strength. It has two existing enclosures. From the outer one only the entrance, flanked by two turrets, remains. The inner has an irregular groundplan, adapted to the outline of the land it was build on. In the interior two floor levels can still be traced which were arranged around a c ...
Founded: 15th century | Location: Montemayor del Río, Spain

Cortegana Castle

The Cortegana Castle is situated on top of a hill. From this elevated position there are beautiful views of the Cortegana town and also of the Natural Park. The Cortegana Castle is the best preserved medieval fortress in the region. The exact foundation date is unknown. Possibly the first castle was erected in the andalusí period, although its present appearance should be put in relation with the military sponsored bt t ...
Founded: 13th century | Location: Cortegana, Spain

Sarracín Castle

Castillo de Sarracín is a castle-fortress located near the village of Vega de Valcarce in Spain, situated on the most ancient European pilgrimage route known as the way of Saint James – El Camino de Santiago. The castle was built around the 9th Century and was used by the Knights Templars to protect the pilgrim routes. The castle has been used until the 16th century and has been abandoned ever since.
Founded: 9th century AD | Location: Vega de Valcarce, Spain

Álora Castle

Álora"s castle was first built by the Phoenicians and subsequently expanded under Roman rule. In the 5th century the castle was destroyed by the Visigoths. The present Álora Castle was built in the 9th century by the Moorish state of Córdoba during a campaign against the Mozarabic rebel leader Umar ibn Hafsun. Later modifications in the 10th century added two enclosures. The inner enclosure was square and used as ...
Founded: 9th century AD | Location: Álora, Spain

Vozmediano Castle

The 14th-century Vozmediano Castle is located atop great hills on the border with Aragon. Throughout the structure you can see various construction styles from different periods; Roman surrounding walls, a Muslim watchtower and medieval walls with battlement hexes. The castle is currently in ruins although it was made up of a double walled enclosure, the outer walls being strengthened on the most vulnerable corner by a g ...
Founded: 14th century | Location: Vozmediano, Spain

Villafuerte Castle

Villafuerte Castle was erected in the 15th century, forming pat of the defensive line drawn alongside of the river. Its first lord was García Franco, a Jew who later on converted to Christianity. It might have been built in order to control his properties. Its layout is of the so-called 'tower castle'; an almost square, small enclosure with round towers (with a 3-meter diameter) at 3 corners and the keep at th ...
Founded: 15th century | Location: Villafuerte, Spain

Curiel de Duero Castle

Castle of Curiel de Duero was built in the 7th-11th century to the site of older fort, even from Roman times. At the beginning of the 21st century the castle lied in ruins. In 2003, a hotel company began an intensive restoration process that ended in 2006 , serving since then as  a hotel with 24 rooms.
Founded: 7th century AD | Location: Curiel de Duero, Spain

Montealegre de Campos Castle

The castle of Montealegre, built in the 12th century, was mentioned for the first time in 1173, when Rodrígo Gutiérrez was appointed lord of Montealegre; together with the castles of Ampudia, Belmonte, Torremormojón, Medina de Rioseco, Mucientes and Trigueros, it formed the defence line of the southern border of the Kingdom of León. The castle was revamped in 1297 by Alfonso Tello Pérez de Meneses, appointed lord o ...
Founded: 12th century | Location: Montealegre de Campos, Spain

Santueri Castle

Santueri Castle sits on top of a rocky outcrop some 475 metres above sea level. It is a stunning, well preserved castle with remarkable views of the south east of Mallorca and the Cabrera Islands on a clear day. The present walls date from the 14th century but a fortification has existed here since Roman times. The castle"s surrounding area has many caves, with archaeological remains much older, that highlight a con ...
Founded: 14th century | Location: Felanitx, Spain

Laguna de Negrillos Castle

Castle of Laguna de Negrillos is one of the fortress that belonged to the Conde Luna, with a characteristic structural style which features for a square floor and use of masonry , except in the corners, whose arris are built in ashlar stone. The keep tower and the crenellated walls are preserved. It was arisen in the 13th century, although what you can seen today is the reconstruction carried out in the 15th century by ...
Founded: 13th century | Location: Laguna de Negrillos, Spain

Featured Historic Landmarks, Sites & Buildings

Historic Site of the week

Derbent Fortress

Derbent is the southernmost city in Russia, occupying the narrow gateway between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus Mountains connecting the Eurasian steppes to the north and the Iranian Plateau to the south. Derbent claims to be the oldest city in Russia with historical documentation dating to the 8th century BCE. Due to its strategic location, over the course of history, the city changed ownership many times, particularly among the Persian, Arab, Mongol, Timurid, Shirvan and Iranian kingdoms.

Derbent has archaeological structures over 5,000 years old. As a result of this geographic peculiarity, the city developed between two walls, stretching from the mountains to the sea. These fortifications were continuously employed for a millennium and a half, longer than any other extant fortress in the world.

A traditionally and historically Iranian city, the first intensive settlement in the Derbent area dates from the 8th century BC. The site was intermittently controlled by the Persian monarchs, starting from the 6th century BC. Until the 4th century AD, it was part of Caucasian Albania which was a satrap of the Achaemenid Persian Empire. In the 5th century Derbent functioned as a border fortress and the seat of Sassanid Persians. Because of its strategic position on the northern branch of the Silk Route, the fortress was contested by the Khazars in the course of the Khazar-Arab Wars. In 654, Derbent was captured by the Arabs.

The Sassanid fortress does not exist any more, as the famous Derbent fortress as it stands today was built from the 12th century onward. Derbent became a strong military outpost and harbour of the Sassanid empire. During the 5th and 6th centuries, Derbent also became an important center for spreading the Christian faith in the Caucasus.

The site continued to be of great strategic importance until the 19th century. Today the fortifications consist of two parallel defence walls and Naryn-Kala Citadel. The walls are 3.6km long, stretching from the sea up to the mountains. They were built from stone and had 73 defence towers. 9 out of the 14 original gates remain.

In Naryn-Kala Citadel most of the old buildings, including a palace and a church, are now in ruins. It also holds baths and one of the oldest mosques in the former USSR.

In 2003, UNESCO included the old part of Derbent with traditional buildings in the World Heritage List.