Medieval churches in Estonia

Kose Church

The first church in Kose was built probably around 1220 and it was inaugurated to St. Nicholas. The present stone church date back to the mid-14th century, although it was mainly renovated to the Neo-Gothic shape in the 19th century. The interior consists a tomb from the 1400’s, pulpit made in 1639 and baroque-style altarpiece (1774).
Founded: 1350 | Location: Kose, Estonia

Noarootsi Church

Noarootsi church is the youngest fortification church in Estonia, built around 1500. It served the congregation of Swedes living on Estonia coast, but also held a defence function. Currently, it is one of the three churches in Estonia with plank roof. Most interesting artefacts inside the church are the baptising stone, baroque pulpit, limestone baroque epitaph to Minister Martin Winter. Reference: Histrodamus
Founded: 1500 | Location: Noarootsi, Estonia

Hanila Church

The church of St. Paul in Hanila was built in 1260s. It has been reconstructed several times, for example the tower was added in 1857-1859. During the last restoration significant mural paintings were founded from the inner walls. The altar and pulpit date back to the year 1709. There are also several interesting tombstones in the near cemetery. Oldest 18 tombs, so-called trapezoid gravestones, date back to the 13th cent ...
Founded: 1260's | Location: Läänemaa, Estonia

Kirbla Church

The church of St. Nicholas (Nigula) in Kirbla is one of the smallest in Estonia. It was built by Johannes Orgas, the bishop of Saare-Läänemaa (Ösel-Wiek), and it completed around the year 1500. The Church building is rectangular-shaped, with a very simple design. The interior has a late-Baroque altar from the year 1783.
Founded: ca. 1500 | Location: Lihula, Estonia

St. Martin's Church

The three-naved Türi hall-church was built at the end of 13th century and dedicated to St. Martin. A chapel with the Baranoff family coat of arms is located in the churchyard, where the memorial signs include a Güldenband coat of arms from the 17th century. The posts of yellowish dolomite in the southern gate of the churchyard are eye-catching, as are the chapel’s 19th-century door frames, cornice, and scu ...
Founded: ca. 1300 | Location: Türi, Estonia

Kaarma Church

The medieval church of Saint Peter and Paul in Kaarma is one of the most interesting sights in Saaremaa island. The building was probably started right after the uprising of Saaremaa inhabitants in 1261. It was a typical church of the Osilia Bishophric - a simple nave with a slightly narrower choir. The steeple was added in the 15th century and thus Kaarma became the first church with a steeple on Saaremaa. The church is ...
Founded: ca. 1261 | Location: Saaremaa, Estonia

Lääne-Nigula Church

The medieval Lääne-Nigula Church was originally built probably in the end of 13th century. The Baroque-style tower was erected in 1760. The present appearance originates mainly from the restoration made in 1809-1816. The oldest artefacts are the altar statues made in 1510. Reference: Tapio Mäkeläinen 2005. Viro - kartanoiden, kirkkojen ja kukkaketojen maa. Tammi, Helsinki, Finland.
Founded: 13th century | Location: Taebla, Estonia

St. Mary's Church

The current building of Pöide Church is believed to be built on the remains of a chapel built in 13th century. After the conquest of Saaremaa in 1227, the eastern part of Saaremaa belonged to the Livonian Order, who built a fortress at Pöide as their headquarters during the second half of the 13th century. This fortress was destroyed by the Saaremaa natives during the wave of uprisings against the occupying forc ...
Founded: 13th century | Location: Saaremaa, Estonia

Rannu Church

St Martin’s Church of Rannu dates back to the 15th century. The wooden belfry was added in 1835. As the unique detail the wooden pulpit, made in the mid-16th century, is the oldest one in Estonia.
Founded: 15th century | Location: Rannu, Estonia

Rõngu Church

The medieval church of Mihkli (St. Michael) was built probably in the end of 14th century. It was mainly destroyed in several wars until the restoration began in the 19th century. The wooden bell tower was built in 1863 and the church was restored to the neo-Gothic appearance in 1901 using medieval walls.
Founded: 14th century | Location: Rõngu, Estonia

Martna Church

The single-nave St. Martin’s Church was built by Johannes Orgas, the bishop of Saare-Läänemaa (Ösel-Wiek), in the beginning of 16th century. His shield is located in the church wall, above the north portal. The oldest artefact inside the church is a Gotland-style baptising stone. Also valuable are the altar wall and Empire style pulpit. The church’s collection of 17th-18th century epitaph coat o ...
Founded: 16th century | Location: Läänemaa, Estonia

Puhja Church

The church of Puhja was originally built in the 14th century. It has been damaged in a war and restored at least twice, in 1490’s and 1630’s. Church interior was modified to the the present neo-Gothic appearance in the 19th century. In the churchyard you can find a memorial dedicated to the Estonian War of Independence, and memorial stones dedicated to the local schoolmaster Käsu Hans, and father and son ...
Founded: 14th century | Location: Puhja, Estonia

Simuna Church

Simuna church is one of the oldest in Estonia although its exact building time is unknown. It has been destroyed in wars and rebuilt again several times during centuries, at least in 1728-29 and also 1885-86. From the old church has remained part of a tower that was used on protective purposes. The altar was made by C. Ackermann, a famous wood carver and the altarpiece was made by Carl Sigismund Walther. The organ was bui ...
Founded: 13th century | Location: Simuna, Estonia

Kadrina Church

The construction of Kadrina (St. Catherine) Church was started in the mid-15th century. It had also a defensive purpose; narrow windows, thick walls and the room on top of the vault could be used as hideout. The tower was added later. The interior originates from different centuries. The German crucifix is made in 1490’s, pulpit in 1745 and altar mainly in the19th century. Reference: Tapio Mäkeläinen 200 ...
Founded: 1450-1490 | Location: Kadrina, Estonia

Kolga-Jaani Church

The rural church of Kolga-Jaani was evidently built during the last quarter of the 14th century, under the direction of a master craftsman from Tallinn. It was damaged in the Great Northern War and left in ruins for a long period. The 45-meter high steeple was erected in the reconstruction in 1875. The most significant artefact inside the church is a cruficix made probably around the yer 1380. Between 1890-1917, the man ...
Founded: 14th century | Location: Kolga-Jaani, Estonia

Halliste Church

The church of St. Anna in Halliste was built probably in the late 15th century. It was almost destroyed by fire in 1959. The reconstruction was made in 1989 by the local community during the Soviet perestroika period. Reference: Tapio Mäkeläinen 2005. Viro - kartanoiden, kirkkojen ja kukkaketojen maa. Tammi, Helsinki, Finland.
Founded: 15th century | Location: Halliste, Estonia

Pilistvere Church

The first record of local priest in Pilistvere date back to the year 1234. The stone church was built in the second half of the 13th century. It was constructed on the example of Suure-Jaani and other Järvamaa churches. Pilistvere church resembles these by the arched choir area, nave and the tower. The church was destroyed several times during 17th to 18th century. It was reconstructed in 1762 which is also stated in ...
Founded: 13th century | Location: Kõo, Estonia

Tarvastu Church

The oldest parts of the church in Tarvastu date back to the 14th century. The former church consisted of a square-shaped nave and a choir. The church has suffered in numerous wars and in 1771 it received a new appearance under the supervision of Johann Christoph Knaut. The church caught fire after a stroke of lightning in 1892 and its reconstruction was started in 1893, in December of the very same year the consecration o ...
Founded: 14th century | Location: Tarvastu, Estonia

Featured Historic Landmarks, Sites & Buildings

Historic Site of the week

Lednice Castle

The first historical record of Lednice locality dates from 1222. At that time there stood a Gothic fort with courtyard, which was lent by Czech King Václav I to Austrian nobleman Sigfried Sirotek in 1249.

At the end of the 13th century the Liechtensteins, originally from Styria, became holders of all of Lednice and of nearby Mikulov. They gradually acquired land on both sides of the Moravian-Austrian border. Members of the family most often found fame in military service, during the Renaissance they expanded their estates through economic activity. From the middle of the 15th century members of the family occupied the highest offices in the land. However, the family’s position in Moravia really changed under the brothers Karel, Maximilian, and Gundakar of Liechtenstein. Through marriage Karel and Maximilian acquired the great wealth of the old Moravian dynasty of the Černohorskýs of Boskovice. At that time the brothers, like their father and grandfather, were Lutheran, but they soon converted to Catholicism, thus preparing the ground for their rise in politics. Particularly Karel, who served at the court of Emperor Rudolf II, became hetman of Moravia in 1608, and was later raised to princely status by King Matyas II and awarded the Duchy of Opava.

During the revolt of the Czech nobility he stood on the side of the Habsburgs, and took part in the Battle of White Mountain. After the uprising was defeated in 1620 he systematically acquired property confiscated from some of the rebels, and the Liechtensteins became the wealthiest family in Moravia, rising in status above the Žerotíns. Their enormous land holdings brought them great profits, and eventually allowed them to carry out their grandious building projects here in Lednice.

In the 16th century it was probably Hartmann II of Liechtenstein who had the old medieval water castle torn down and replaced with a Renaissance chateau. At the end of the 17th century the chateau was torn down and a Baroque palace was built, with an extensive formal garden, and a massive riding hall designed by Johann Bernard Fischer von Erlach that still stands in almost unaltered form.

In the mid-18th century the chateau was again renovated, and in 1815 its front tracts that had been part of the Baroque chateau were removed.

The chateau as it looks today dates from 1846-1858, when Prince Alois II decided that Vienna was not suitable for entertaining in the summer, and had Lednice rebuilt into a summer palace in the spirit of English Gothic. The hall on the ground floor would serve to entertain the European aristocracy at sumptuous banquets, and was furnished with carved wood ceilings, wooden panelling, and select furniture, surpassing anything of its kind in Europe.