The medieval church of Saint Peter and Paul in Kaarma is one of the most interesting sights in Saaremaa island. The building was probably started right after the uprising of Saaremaa inhabitants in 1261. It was a typical church of the Osilia Bishophric - a simple nave with a slightly narrower choir. The steeple was added in the 15th century and thus Kaarma became the first church with a steeple on Saaremaa.
The church is built on unstable ground and during construction an accident seems to have occurred, and part of it seem to have collapsed. The nave did not acquire its present vaults until the 15th century. The relatively wide nave was divided into two aisles for safety purposes. Sometime prior to the 15th century reconstructions, a room with a fireplace was built above the vestry. This room could serve as a place of refuge for the colonizers from the angry natives of Saaremaa. Later, it became shelter for pilgrims who followed a route that included churches on the island of Gotland and Saaremaa.
The murals on the northern wall of the choir originate from the old church. They depict a painted illusionary window and a scene with St. Christopher. Unfortunately, only the legs seem to have survived. The proceedings were observed by a hermit carrying a lantern.
Many pieces of art have survived in Kaarma church. There is a medieval baptismal font (13th century) and a wooden sculpture of St. Simon of Cyrene (mid-15th century) standing under the pulpit. The pulpit, dating from 1645, is also worth noting. The present Neo-Gothic altarpiece depicts a painting by O. von Moeller of Christ on the Cross. The niches in the altar was formerly filled by medeival carvings of the apostles. These sculptures can now be seen in the Saaremaa Museum in Kuressaare.
The Externsteine (Extern stones) is a distinctive sandstone rock formation located in the Teutoburg Forest, near the town of Horn-Bad Meinberg. The formation is a tor consisting of several tall, narrow columns of rock which rise abruptly from the surrounding wooded hills. Archaeological excavations have yielded some Upper Paleolithic stone tools dating to about 10,700 BC from 9,600 BC.
In a popular tradition going back to an idea proposed to Hermann Hamelmann in 1564, the Externsteine are identified as a sacred site of the pagan Saxons, and the location of the Irminsul (sacral pillar-like object in German paganism) idol reportedly destroyed by Charlemagne; there is however no archaeological evidence that would confirm the site's use during the relevant period.
The stones were used as the site of a hermitage in the Middle Ages, and by at least the high medieval period were the site of a Christian chapel. The Externsteine relief is a medieval depiction of the Descent from the Cross. It remains controversial whether the site was already used for Christian worship in the 8th to early 10th centuries.
The Externsteine gained prominence when Völkisch and nationalistic scholars took an interest in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. This interest peaked under the Nazi regime, when the Externsteine became a focus of nazi propaganda. Today, they remain a popular tourist destination and also continue to attract Neo-Pagans and Neo-Nazis.