Nuragic civilization

Nuraghe Santu Antine

Nuraghe Santu Antine, also known as 'Sa domo de su re' ('The house of the king') is an ancient megalithic edifice built by the Nuragic Civilization in Torralba, one of the largest in Sardinia. It is located in the centre of the Cabu Abbas plain. The main structure was built around the 19-18th century BC, and the other parts of the nuraghe date back to the 17th–15th century BC. The main tower original ...
Founded: 1800-1400 BCE | Location: Torralba, Italy

Nuraghe Palmavera

The nuraghe Palmavera is classified as a complex nuraghe, that consists of several towers joined together. The nuraghe and the surrounding village were built in various phase during the Bronze Age and the Iron Age. The main tower dates back to the first phase (15th-14th century BC) and retains the central chamber covered with the tholos and built with stones in limestone. The tower is archaic, with the entrance free of s ...
Founded: 1400-1300 BCE | Location: Alghero, Italy

Nuraghe Loelle

Nuraghe Loelle is a megalith located near Buddusò in Sardinia. It was built by the Nuragic civilization between 1600-400 BCE. The main tower is about 7-9m wide. Near the nuraghe are also two giant tombs from the same age.
Founded: 1600-400 BCE | Location: Buddusò, Italy

Albucciu Nuraghe

Just two and a half kilometres away from the village of Arzachena, you will find the Albucciu nuraghe, one of the most characteristic and important examples of a "corridor" building (or protonuraghe), the ancestor of the later nuraghes, although the truncated-ogival rooves were affected by the subsequent tholos building technique . Dating back to the Middle Bronze Age (15th century BC), the nuraghe is completel ...
Founded: 1600 BCE | Location: Arzachena, Italy

Giants' Grave of Coddu Vecchiu

Coddu Vecchiu is a Nuragic funerary monument located near Arzachena, dating from the Bronze Age. The site consists of a stele, stone megaliths and a gallery grave, and is one of the larger Nuragic Giants' graves on the island. The Nuraghe La Prisgiona is located nearby. The site was excavated in 1966 by Editta Castaldi. Among the artifacts recovered were pans, bowls and plates with comb decoration, as well as vases with ...
Founded: 1800-1600 BCE | Location: Arzachena, Italy

Nuraghe La Prisgiona

The Nuraghe La Prisgiona is a nuragic archaeological site (occupied from the 14th until the 9th century BC), located in the Capichera valley in the municipality of Arzachena Costa Smeralda in the north of Sardinia. It consists of a nuraghe and a village comprising around 90-100 buildings, spread across 5 hectares. Findings from this site are in many cases unique in Sardinia, particularly with regard to decoration and use. ...
Founded: 1300-800 BCE | Location: Arzachena, Italy

Nuraghe Maiori

The Nuraghe Maiori is an archaeological site, situated near the Comune of Tempio Pausania. The Nuraghe are stone houses that date back to the Bronze Age and can be found all across Sardinia"s interior. Near are the ruins of older Protonuraghe Naracheddu and Nuraghe Cacchioni.
Founded: 1800-1400 BCE | Location: Tempio Pausania, Italy

Nuraghe Appiu

Nuraghe Appiu archaeological park is surrounded by a suggestive and uncontaminated environment. It was probably born as anuraghe with only one tower, to which, later, other towers have been united, connected among them by corridors, outlining a quadrilobate figure. In its simple form the nuraghe is a flat-topped conical tower built with stones of varying size laid without grout (dry walls). The masonry consists of cou ...
Founded: 1800 BCE | Location: Villanova Monteleone, Italy

Tomba dei giganti di Li Lolghi

Tomba dei giganti di Li Lolghi is a burial chamber which probably dates back to the period included between 1800-1200 BCE. Like the tomb of  Coddu Vecchiu, it was built in two different phases for different uses: during the Nuragic Age the original Dolmen, high a bit less than 4m and probably belonging to the Bonannaro"s culture, was linked to a 10m corridor made up by stones stuck in the ground vertically. This new ...
Founded: 1800-1200 BCE | Location: Arzachena, Italy

Gigantic Tomb of Pascaredda

Tomba dei giganti di Pascaredda dates from the Bronze Age (1700-1400 BCE). The well-preserved site consists of about twenty stones and is 18 m long.
Founded: 1700-1400 BCE | Location: Calangianus, Italy

Giants' Grave of Su Mont'e s'Abe

The Giants' grave of Su Mont'e s'Abe is an archaeological site located in the municipality of Olbia. Like other giants' tombs of Gallura, it was built in two main phases of construction. In the first stage, during the period of the Bonnanaro culture, it was built an allée couverte tomb; later, in the second phase, during the age Nuragic age (1600 BC approximately), the allée couverte was transformed into a giants' ...
Founded: 1600 BCE | Location: Olbia, Italy

Pozzo Sacro Milis

Pozzo Sacro Milis is a Nuragic age sacred well with an underground chamber. It dates from the 1500 BCE.
Founded: 1500 BCE | Location: Golfo Aranci, Italy

The Monte Baranta Megalithic Complex

A pre-Nuragic settlement in Nurra at the extreme north-western edge of Sardinia is home to remarkable remains of an impenetrable fortress. Huge boulders create an impenetrable 100 metre long and 3 metre high wall. It’s the great wall of the fortress built by pre-Nuragic settlers to defend their wide fertile valley, and it is one of the most remarkable and massive settlements from the 3rd millennium BC in all of the Medi ...
Founded: 2500-2000 BCE | Location: Olmedo, Italy

Nuraghe Oes

The main tower and a secondary tower of Nuraghe Oes contain a single room, which was once divided into three spaces with wooden garrets supported by recesses, attached thanks to holes made in the walls. Dating back to a period between the Bronze Age and the Iron Age (9th-6th century BC), the Oes is a majestic work of Nuragic architecture, built using well-finished basalt rocks. The main building consists of a tower (keep ...
Founded: 800-500 BCE | Location: Giave, Italy

Necropolis of Mesu 'e Montes

The Necropolis of Mesu "e Montes complex consists of 18 domus de Janas (type of pre-Nuragic chamber tombs in Sardinia). The site dates from the Neolithic to Middle Bronze Age. Of particular note, tombs I and II with 12 chambers each, decorated with a variety of features, a ceiling reproducing a gabled roof and a circular hearth sculpted into the floor; and tombs III, IV and XVI, all of architectural interest, with a ...
Founded: 3000 BCE | Location: Province of Sassari, Italy

Li Mizzani Giants' Tomb

Probably dating from the Middle Bronze Age (1600-1300 BC), Li Mizzani Giants" Tomb is among the few in the island that has retained the stele in its original upright position, 2.8 meters high.The Tomb of Giants Li Mizzani has an external width of 2.45 m. About 300 meters from the grave, to the left of a country house, is less than the perimeter wall and the entrance of the dolmen Luchia; near you you can also see the ...
Founded: 1600-1300 BC | Location: Provincia di Sassari, Italy

Laccaneddu Tomb of the Giants

The Laccaneddu Tomb of the Giants is a Bronze age tomb dating from the 1800-1400 BCE. It is over 7 meters long and 2,8m wide.
Founded: 1800-1400 BCE | Location: Villanova Monteleone, Italy

Izzana Nuraghe

Nuraghe Izzana (the main type of ancient megalithic edifice found in Sardinia) is one of the largest in the island. It has two entries it dates from around 1500 BCE.
Founded: 1500 BCE | Location: Tempio Pausania, Italy

Pozzo Sacro di Predio Canopoli

The Pozzo sacro of Predio Canopoli is a sacred well, one of the best preserved well temples in Sardinia, has been discovered in 1923 and excavated by Taramelli. The monument has a typical plan of a nuragic well temple, with the atrium, stairs and the well located in underground chamber. The sacred well is constructed of very accurately treated limestone blocks.
Founded: 1300 BCE | Location: Perfugas, Italy

Pozzo Sacro di Sa Testa

One of the Gallura area’s most characteristic Nuragic landmarks is a sacred well where water worship rituals were performed. Pozzo Sacro di Sa Testa (The Holy Well of Sa Testa). It dates to between 15th and 13th centuries BCE and sits just outside of the town of Olbia. It is just under 18 metres long and made of granite, trachyte and schist cut into blocks that were then carefully finished. The external part is reminisc ...
Founded: 1400-1200 BCE | Location: Olbia, Italy

Featured Historic Landmarks, Sites & Buildings

Historic Site of the week

Cesis Castle

German crusaders known as the Livonian Brothers of the Sword began construction of the Cēsis castle (Wenden) near the hill fort in 1209. When the castle was enlarged and fortified, it served as the residence for the Order's Master from 1237 till 1561, with periodic interruptions. Its ruins are some of the most majestic castle ruins in the Baltic states. Once the most important castle of the Livonian Order, it was the official residence for the masters of the order.

In 1577, during the Livonian War, the garrison destroyed the castle to prevent it from falling into the control of Ivan the Terrible, who was decisively defeated in the Battle of Wenden (1578).

In 1598 it was incorporated into the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Wenden Voivodship was created here. In 1620 Wenden was conquered by Sweden. It was rebuilt afterwards, but was destroyed again in 1703 during the Great Northern War by the Russian army and left in a ruined state. Already from the end of the 16th century, the premises of the Order's castle were adjusted to the requirements of the Cēsis Castle estate. When in 1777 the Cēsis Castle estate was obtained by Count Carl Sievers, he had his new residence house built on the site of the eastern block of the castle, joining its end wall with the fortification tower.

Since 1949, the Cēsis History Museum has been located in this New Castle of the Cēsis Castle estate. The front yard of the New Castle is enclosed by a granary and a stable-coach house, which now houses the Exhibition Hall of the Museum. Beside the granary there is the oldest brewery in Latvia, Cēsu alus darītava, which was built in 1878 during the later Count Sievers' time, but its origins date back to the period of the Livonian Order. Further on, the Cēsis Castle park is situated, which was laid out in 1812. The park has the romantic characteristic of that time, with its winding footpaths, exotic plants, and the waters of the pond reflecting the castle's ruins. Nowadays also one of the towers is open for tourists.