The Vučedol archaeological site is located on the right bank of the Danube River. Both sides along the pass towards the Danube make up the archaeological site, on the left is the Karasović Vineyard, and on the right is a large complex which include the Streim Vineyard, the Streim Cornfield and artificially separated from them is a little plateau known as Gradac, which with later excavations was confirmed as being the metallurgical and cult centre of the site. Vučedol is one of the most significant archaeological sites in Europe.
The first investigations of the site date back to 1897. This attractive location was first inhabited in about 6,000 B.C. at the time of the first farmers, and more or less it was inhabited intensively through the whole of prehistory. The period between 3,350 – 2,300 B.C. was the most intensive period of its existence and in that period it was undoubtedly the most significant European centre. Since this was also the time of the early settlements of Troy (Troy I and II) many analogies can also be found with the archaeological material from Vučedol. More precisely, we can also characterise Vučedol as the European Troy by its contemporaneousness, but even more so by the continental significance of the site and its finds.
Archaeological excavations to date are able to very precisely reconstruct the daily life and customs of four cultural phenomena which in that time swept through Vučedol (Baden, Kostolac, Vučedol and Vinkovci). It was a turbulent time of the immigration of the first Indo-Europeans and their relationship with the natives, the blending of material cultures and religions. Each of the above-mentioned cultures had its own interesting separate destiny in Vučedol, however the most detailed one able to be reconstructed is the Vučedol which also gave its name to this site. Vučedol reached a real peak in the intensity of settlement right in the period of the Vučedol Culture (3,000 – 2,500 B.C.). Excavations show that the culture was literally born in this area and that for a long time it was its most significant centre. This cultural phenomenon at its peak completely or partially covered 14 of today’s European countries – the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Austria, Hungary, Romania, Slovenia, Italy, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, Kosovo, Albania and one settlement has even been registered in Eastern Greece.
Vučedol Culture Museum was established in 2013 as a national museum. This is the result of many years of efforts in Vučedol because its character is classified in the first row of archaeological parks and entered in the archaeological map of this part of Europe.References:
Dating from the 15th century, Kisimul is the only significant surviving medieval castle in the Outer Hebrides. It was the residence of the chief of the Macneils of Barra, who claimed descent from the legendary Niall of the Nine Hostages. Tradition tells of the Macneils settling in Barra in the 11th century, but it was only in 1427 that Gilleonan Macneil comes on record as the first lord. He probably built the castle that dominates the rocky islet, and in its shadow a crew house for his personal galley and crew. The sea coursed through Macneil veins, and a descendant, Ruari ‘the Turbulent’, was arrested for piracy of an English ship during King James VI’s reign in the later 16th century.
Heavy debts eventually forced the Macneil chiefs to sell Barra in 1838. However, a descendant, Robert Lister Macneil, the 45th Chief, repurchased the estate in 1937, and set about restoring his ancestral seat. It passed into Historic Scotland’s care in 2000.
The castle dates essentially from the 15th century. It takes the form of a three-storey tower house. This formed the residence of the clan chief. An associated curtain wall fringed the small rock on which the castle stood, and enclosed a small courtyard in which there are ancillary buildings. These comprised a feasting hall, a chapel, a tanist’s house and a watchman’s house. Most were restored in the 20th century, the tanist’s house serving as the family home of the Macneils. A well near the postern gate is fed with fresh water from an underground seam. Outside the curtain wall, beside the original landing-place, are the foundations of the crew house, where the sailors manning their chief’s galley had their quarters.