Santa María de Montederramo's origins seem to have been the old Church of San Juan, which grew into a monastery. It was founded as a Cistercian monastery by Doña Teresa, Alfonso VII´s daughter, in 1142, bringing French nuns from Claraval. Other writers refer to it as Cistercian in the year 1153, when it adopted the worship of St. Mary.
In the year 1528, it joined the Cistercian Congregation, in Spain, with the building´s reconstruction beginning at that time, including the church, with most of the work taking place during the 16th century. The slender church stands on a Latin-cross ground plan, with three aisles in five sections along the main arm; side arms marked on the ground floor, five rectangular chapels, the central the main one. The aisles have Ogival, ribbed vaults, with lunettes and coffering. In the transept, there is a dome over pendentives with cupola. The facade flay and austere. The church was begun in the year 1598, with Juan de Tolosa as master-architect, from the Company of Jesus, and creator of the Hospital of Medina del Campo, in addition to other builders. Construction work ended in the year 1607, inscreibed on the facade.
The monastery has two cloisters, the oldest of which is in evolved Ogival style, square, with five semi-circular arches per side and nine-pointed star-vaults; the upper part has Renaissance and Baroque arches and windows. The second cloister is square, elegant, with four semi-circular arches per side over free-standing Renaissance columns, and sculpted medallions and shields, all dating from the 16th century. It also has a large, monumental stairway down to the church and a fine sacristy.The regular or processional cloister is connected to the church. In the early 1980s this area was rescued from a state of ruin, and once restored it began to be used as a school.References:
The famous Italian Medici family have given two queens to France: Catherine, the spouse of Henry II, and Marie, widow of Henry IV, who built the current Luxembourg palace. Maria di Medici had never been happy at the Louvre, still semi-medieval, where the fickle king, did not hesitate to receive his mistresses. The death of Henry IV, assassinated in 1610, left the way open for Marie's project. When she became regent, she was able to give special attention to the construction of an imposing modern residence that would be reminiscent of the Palazzo Pitti and the Boboli Gardens in Florence, where she grew up. The development of the 25-hectare park, which was to serve as a jewel-case for the palace, began immediately.
The architect, Salomon de Brosse, began the work in 1615. Only 16 years later was the palace was completed. Palace of Luxembourg affords a transition between the Renaissance and the Classical period.
In 1750, the Director of the King's Buildings installed in the wing the first public art-gallery in France, in which French and foreign canvases of the royal collections are shown. The Count of Provence and future Louis XVIII, who was living in Petit Luxembourg, had this gallery closed in 1780: leaving to emigrate, he fled from the palace in June 1791.
During the French Revolution the palace was first abandoned and then moved as a national prison. After that it was the seat of the French Directory, and in 1799, the home of the Sénat conservateur and the first residence of Napoleon Bonaparte, as First Consul of the French Republic. The old apartments of Maria di Medici were altered. The floor, which the 80 senators only occupied in 1804, was built in the middle of the present Conference Hall.
Beginning in 1835 the architect Alphonse de Gisors added a new garden wing parallel to the old corps de logis, replicating the look of the original 17th-century facade so precisely that it is difficult to distinguish at first glance the old from the new. The new senate chamber was located in what would have been the courtyard area in-between.
The new wing included a library (bibliothèque) with a cycle of paintings (1845–1847) by Eugène Delacroix. In the 1850s, at the request of Emperor Napoleon III, Gisors created the highly decorated Salle des Conférences, which influenced the nature of subsequent official interiors of the Second Empire, including those of the Palais Garnier.
During the German occupation of Paris (1940–1944), Hermann Göring took over the palace as the headquarters of the Luftwaffe in France, taking for himself a sumptuous suite of rooms to accommodate his visits to the French capital. Since 1958 the Luxembourg palace has been the seat of the French Senate of the Fifth Republic.