Affleck Castle, also known as Auchenleck Castle, was built on the lands of the Auchenlecks in the 15th century. In the early 18th century it belonged to a family of Reids, who forfeited the castle in 1746 because of their activities as Jacobites. It has not been occupied since 1760, when a new mansion was built.
Affleck Castle is a well-preserved free-standing tower of four storeys and a parapeted garret. It is 18 m tall, and has thick rubble walls, with several mural rooms. A few steps down from the entrance is the basement, which is sub-divided.
The hall, which is on the first floor, has a vaulted ceiling; this supports a withdrawing room. Above the main staircase is an entresol bedroom, almost 2.1 m square, reached by an eleven-step staircase in the east wall. The stairs lead from the hall. The withdrawing room has a spy-hole into the hall below. This would have allowed all movement to the main turnpike stair to be observed. The room has window seats, wall closets, and a shafted fireplace. A step up from this room leads to a circular oratory, equipped with aumbry, piscine, holy-water stoup and stone candle-holders. This room is also vaulted. There is a bedroom in each of the upper floors.
A projection by the door, with a square caphouse, houses the stair. There is another square caphouse over the south-west angle. There are two devices for dropping missiles or liquids on attackers: one over the arched door; and the other on the west front, while the ground floor is equipped with gun loops.References:
Roman Walls of Lugo are an exceptional architectural, archaeological and constructive legacy of Roman engineering, dating from the 3rd and 4th centuries AD. The Walls are built of internal and external stone facings of slate with some granite, with a core filling of a conglomerate of slate slabs and worked stone pieces from Roman buildings, interlocked with lime mortar.
Their total length of 2117 m in the shape of an oblong rectangle occupies an area of 1.68 ha. Their height varies between 8 and 10 m, with a width of 4.2 m, reaching 7 m in some specific points. The walls still contain 85 external towers, 10 gates (five of which are original and five that were opened in modern times), four staircases and two ramps providing access to the walkway along the top of the walls, one of which is internal and the other external. Each tower contained access stairs leading from the intervallum to the wall walk of town wall, of which a total of 21 have been discovered to date.
The defences of Lugo are the most complete and best preserved example of Roman military architecture in the Western Roman Empire.
Despite the renovation work carried out, the walls conserve their original layout and the construction features associated with their defensive purpose, with walls, battlements, towers, fortifications, both modern and original gates and stairways, and a moat.
Since they were built, the walls have defined the layout and growth of the city, which was declared a Historical-Artistic Ensemble in 1973, forming a part of it and becoming an emblematic structure that can be freely accessed to walk along. The local inhabitants and visitors alike have used them as an area for enjoyment and as a part of urban life for centuries.
The fortifications were added to UNESCO"s World Heritage List in late 2000 and are a popular tourist attraction.