Kinloss Abbey is a Cistercian abbey founded in 1150 by King David I and was first colonised by monks from Melrose Abbey. It received its Papal Bull from Pope Alexander III in 1174, and later came under the protection of the Bishop of Moray in 1187. The abbey went on to become one of the largest and wealthiest religious houses in Scotland, receiving the valuable salmon fishing rights on the River Findhorn from Robert the Bruce in 1312, subsequently renewed by James I and James IV.
During its history the abbey has received many royal visitors, including Edward I in 1303, Edward III in 1336 and Mary, Queen of Scots, in 1562. The most renowned of the 24 abbots the monastery had was Robert Reid. Reid introduced organised education, erecting a new library and other buildings at the abbey. He became Bishop of Orkney in 1541 and, following his death, became the founder and benefactor of the University of Edinburgh with funds from his estate.
Few of the monastic buildings remain standing today. The remains of the abbey are now situated within a graveyard owned by the local authority, and are therefore accessible at all times. They are designated a scheduled ancient monument.References:
Goryōkaku (五稜郭) (literally, 'five-point fort') is a star fort in the Japanese city of Hakodate on the island of Hokkaido. The fortress was completed in 1866. It was the main fortress of the short-lived Republic of Ezo.
Goryōkaku was designed in 1855 by Takeda Ayasaburō and Jules Brunet. Their plans was based on the work of the French architect Vauban. The fortress was completed in 1866, two years before the collapse of the Tokugawa Shogunate. It is shaped like a five-pointed star. This allowed for greater numbers of gun emplacements on its walls than a traditional Japanese fortress, and reduced the number of blind spots where a cannon could not fire.
The fort was built by the Tokugawa shogunate to protect the Tsugaru Strait against a possible invasion by the Meiji government.
Goryōkaku is famous as the site of the last battle of the Boshin War.