Clackmannan Tower is a five-storey tower house, situated at the summit of King's Seat Hill in Clackmannan. It dates back to at least the 14th century, when it was inhabited by King David II of Scotland, and David is recorded as selling it to his cousin Robert Bruce in 1359.
Clackmannan Tower is located on King's Seat Hill, on the western edge of the town of Clackmannan in the Scottish county of Clackmannanshire. The tower is at an elevation of 55 metres above sea level, with views of the River Forth to the south and the Ochil Hills to the north. The tower is largely still intact from its medieval days, including the roof, although part of the eastern wall was reconstructed following a collapse in 1950. The building is L-shaped, with five storeys. The original part of the building is on the north, and the slightly higher 1500s wing to the south, using cut blocks of pink sandstone. The newer section features a fireplace on the second floor, typical of its period. Gardens and an area probably once used as a bowling green are situated to the south of the tower, while a large platform is on the northern side.
The land on which the tower stands was the originally the property of the Crown of Scotland, and in the late 12th century the town of Clackmannan was home to a mill belonging to the monks of the Cambuskenneth Abbey. It it not known exactly when the original tower was constructed, and local tradition asserts that it was built by Robert the Bruce. King David II Bruce was recorded as being in residence at the town in 1329, and the tower may have been constructed by then. In 1359, David sold the site, including a hunting lodge, to his cousin Sir Robert Bruce, possibly with a view to keeping it in the possession of the Bruce family and not as a royal asset.
In around 1500 the south wing was added, and in the seventeenth century a moat and drawbridge were built as well as surrounding walls.References:
Roman Walls of Lugo are an exceptional architectural, archaeological and constructive legacy of Roman engineering, dating from the 3rd and 4th centuries AD. The Walls are built of internal and external stone facings of slate with some granite, with a core filling of a conglomerate of slate slabs and worked stone pieces from Roman buildings, interlocked with lime mortar.
Their total length of 2117 m in the shape of an oblong rectangle occupies an area of 1.68 ha. Their height varies between 8 and 10 m, with a width of 4.2 m, reaching 7 m in some specific points. The walls still contain 85 external towers, 10 gates (five of which are original and five that were opened in modern times), four staircases and two ramps providing access to the walkway along the top of the walls, one of which is internal and the other external. Each tower contained access stairs leading from the intervallum to the wall walk of town wall, of which a total of 21 have been discovered to date.
The defences of Lugo are the most complete and best preserved example of Roman military architecture in the Western Roman Empire.
Despite the renovation work carried out, the walls conserve their original layout and the construction features associated with their defensive purpose, with walls, battlements, towers, fortifications, both modern and original gates and stairways, and a moat.
Since they were built, the walls have defined the layout and growth of the city, which was declared a Historical-Artistic Ensemble in 1973, forming a part of it and becoming an emblematic structure that can be freely accessed to walk along. The local inhabitants and visitors alike have used them as an area for enjoyment and as a part of urban life for centuries.
The fortifications were added to UNESCO"s World Heritage List in late 2000 and are a popular tourist attraction.