Clackmannan Tower is a five-storey tower house, situated at the summit of King's Seat Hill in Clackmannan. It dates back to at least the 14th century, when it was inhabited by King David II of Scotland, and David is recorded as selling it to his cousin Robert Bruce in 1359.
Clackmannan Tower is located on King's Seat Hill, on the western edge of the town of Clackmannan in the Scottish county of Clackmannanshire. The tower is at an elevation of 55 metres above sea level, with views of the River Forth to the south and the Ochil Hills to the north. The tower is largely still intact from its medieval days, including the roof, although part of the eastern wall was reconstructed following a collapse in 1950. The building is L-shaped, with five storeys. The original part of the building is on the north, and the slightly higher 1500s wing to the south, using cut blocks of pink sandstone. The newer section features a fireplace on the second floor, typical of its period. Gardens and an area probably once used as a bowling green are situated to the south of the tower, while a large platform is on the northern side.
The land on which the tower stands was the originally the property of the Crown of Scotland, and in the late 12th century the town of Clackmannan was home to a mill belonging to the monks of the Cambuskenneth Abbey. It it not known exactly when the original tower was constructed, and local tradition asserts that it was built by Robert the Bruce. King David II Bruce was recorded as being in residence at the town in 1329, and the tower may have been constructed by then. In 1359, David sold the site, including a hunting lodge, to his cousin Sir Robert Bruce, possibly with a view to keeping it in the possession of the Bruce family and not as a royal asset.
In around 1500 the south wing was added, and in the seventeenth century a moat and drawbridge were built as well as surrounding walls.References:
The Arch of Constantine is situated between the Colosseum and the Palatine Hill. It was erected by the Roman Senate to commemorate Constantine I's victory over Maxentius at the Battle of Milvian Bridge in 312. Dedicated in 315, it is the largest Roman triumphal arch. The arch spans the Via triumphalis, the way taken by the emperors when they entered the city in triumph.
Though dedicated to Constantine, much of the decorative material incorporated earlier work from the time of the emperors Trajan (98-117), Hadrian (117-138) and Marcus Aurelius (161-180), and is thus a collage. The last of the existing triumphal arches in Rome, it is also the only one to make extensive use of spolia, reusing several major reliefs from 2nd century imperial monuments, which give a striking and famous stylistic contrast to the sculpture newly created for the arch.
The arch is 21 m high, 25.9 m wide and 7.4 m deep. Above the archways is placed the attic, composed of brickwork reveted (faced) with marble. A staircase within the arch is entered from a door at some height from the ground, on the west side, facing the Palatine Hill. The general design with a main part structured by detached columns and an attic with the main inscription above is modelled after the example of the Arch of Septimius Severus on the Roman Forum.