The two pit furnaces at Dunshammar, two kilometres south of Ängelsberg, constitute the oldest link in the 1,500 years during which iron has been produced in the region. The furnaces have been well preserved and the site is one of only a few where Iron-Age pit furnaces can be seen in their natural setting. Several other pit furnaces existed in the bays on the eastern shore of lake Åmänningen during the Iron Age. The people lived just back from the shore, and Iron-Age graves have been discovered near Västervåla church and at Virsbo, 8 km to the south.
The furnaces, made of stone and sealed with clay, were created in pits, and bellows were used to blow air into the furnace. The ore was brought up from the bottom of the lake using boats or rafts in the summer, and through holes made in the ice in winter. The ore from the bed of the lake was rich in iron, having a concentration of some 60%. However, it also contained phosphorus, which makes the iron hard and brittle. Once the iron had been brought up from the lake bed, it was roasted to remove the moisture and any organic material. When the bellows were operating, the temperature in the furnace reached about 1100°C. The slag ran down and settled out on the bottom of the furnace, while the iron solidified into a lump on top of the slag. Because of the relatively low temperature, the iron had a low carbon content and could be forged straight from the furnace. Most of the phosphorus was carried away in the slag.
Two archeological digs have taken place on the site, one in 1969–70, and the other in 1985. The age of the furnaces, determined by radiocarbon dating (C14), was found to be AD 300-800. An estimate was also made of the amount of iron produced over the centuries, and this turned out to be six or seven tonnes.
As well as the two well-preserved pit furnaces, there are also a charcoal-burning stack and three large slag heaps on the site. Around the furnaces are hollows that were created when clay was dug out for sealing the furnaces. The local heritage association at Västervåla has established a small museum in which the ancient process of producing iron is depicted in words and pictures.References:
Lübeck Cathedral is a large brick-built Lutheran cathedral in Lübeck, Germany and part of the Lübeck UNESCO World Heritage Site. In 1173 Henry the Lion founded the cathedral to serve the Diocese of Lübeck, after the transfer in 1160 of the bishop's seat from Oldenburg in Holstein under bishop Gerold. The then Romanesque cathedral was completed around 1230, but between 1266 and 1335 it was converted into a Gothic-style building with side-aisles raised to the same height as the main aisle.
On the night of Palm Sunday (28–29 March) 1942 a Royal Air Force bombing raid destroyed a fifth of the town centre. Several bombs fell in the area around the church, causing the eastern vault of the quire to collapse and destroying the altar which dated from 1696. A fire from the neighbouring cathedral museum spread to the truss of the cathedral, and around noon on Palm Sunday the towers collapsed. An Arp Schnitger organ was lost in the flames. Nevertheless, a relatively large portion of the internal fittings was saved, including the cross and almost all of the medieval polyptychs. In 1946 a further collapse, of the gable of the north transept, destroyed the vestibule almost completely.
Reconstruction of the cathedral took several decades, as greater priority was given to the rebuilding of the Marienkirche. Work was completed only in 1982.
The cathedral is unique in that at 105 m, it is shorter than the tallest church in the city. This is the consequence of a power struggle between the church and the guilds.
The 17 m crucifix is the work of the Lübeck artist Bernt Notke. It was commissioned by the bishop of Lübeck, Albert II. Krummendiek, and erected in 1477. The carvings which decorate the rood screen are also by Notke.
Since the war, the famous altar of Hans Memling has been in the medieval collection of the St. Annen Museum, but notable polyptychs remain in the cathedral.
In the funeral chapels of the southern aisle are Baroque-era memorials by the Flemish sculptor Thomas Quellinus.