Walking along the Falcomatà waterfront, at Piazza Camagna, you will come across Reggio's largest stretch of Hellenistic walls, enclosed by wrought-iron gate. Although they are defined as 'Greek' walls, they are in reality the product of the city wall circuit that over time has been restored countless times, especially after the violent earthquake of 1783.
Built from burned bricks, of which almost no traces remain, the walls were built on foundations of local soft stone. The walls were constructed using a double curtain technique; spaces were filled with earth and crushed stone. The walls were actually built using isodomic blocks of local sandstone, arranged in two parallel lines with perpendicular stretches.
The preserved section is of extraordinary interest because it features the point where the western walls converge in an angle, deviating towards the east, closing the city walls to the south.
In terms of identifying the wall’s age, the ancient ceramic fragments found in the bricks are not helpful when trying to establish its exact moment of construction. The hypothesis that the walls were built after the mid-4th century BC, when Dionysius II rebuilt the city of Reggio under the name Febea, the city of Febo Apollo, is the most probable.The Archaeological Superintendence has hypothesized that, in the Reggio wall circuit, the walls in raw bricks come from the period of Anassila the tyrant (5th century BC), while those in burned bricks can be attributed to the tyrant Dionysius II, who was only in Reggio between 356 and 351 BC. Other scholars think instead that the walls, as we know them today, come from 4th century BC, based on the witnessed interventions by Dionysius II, the Republic of Reggina, and King Agathocles.Beyond the question of its exact dating, the Greek walls represent an important historical record not only of the city, but also of the entire classical civilization along the shores of the Mediterranean.References:
Roman Walls of Lugo are an exceptional architectural, archaeological and constructive legacy of Roman engineering, dating from the 3rd and 4th centuries AD. The Walls are built of internal and external stone facings of slate with some granite, with a core filling of a conglomerate of slate slabs and worked stone pieces from Roman buildings, interlocked with lime mortar.
Their total length of 2117 m in the shape of an oblong rectangle occupies an area of 1.68 ha. Their height varies between 8 and 10 m, with a width of 4.2 m, reaching 7 m in some specific points. The walls still contain 85 external towers, 10 gates (five of which are original and five that were opened in modern times), four staircases and two ramps providing access to the walkway along the top of the walls, one of which is internal and the other external. Each tower contained access stairs leading from the intervallum to the wall walk of town wall, of which a total of 21 have been discovered to date.
The defences of Lugo are the most complete and best preserved example of Roman military architecture in the Western Roman Empire.
Despite the renovation work carried out, the walls conserve their original layout and the construction features associated with their defensive purpose, with walls, battlements, towers, fortifications, both modern and original gates and stairways, and a moat.
Since they were built, the walls have defined the layout and growth of the city, which was declared a Historical-Artistic Ensemble in 1973, forming a part of it and becoming an emblematic structure that can be freely accessed to walk along. The local inhabitants and visitors alike have used them as an area for enjoyment and as a part of urban life for centuries.
The fortifications were added to UNESCO"s World Heritage List in late 2000 and are a popular tourist attraction.