The earliest official mention of building a fortress in Waldau comes from a chronicle dating to 1258. The name of the castle derives from the Baltic Prussian language, where it meant 'to own'. And in fact, the surrounding lands belonged to two Prussian landowners: Brulant and Diabel, who were called 'tenants' or 'dukes'. In 1264, the dukes were obliged by the Teutonic Knights to set up an inn, in which Teutonic knights, clergymen and soldiers would stay. There, travelling merchants would spend time discussing the ups and downs of commerce over a pint of barley beer or a bottle of cider.
When the lands of Nadrovia and Sudovia had been occupied by the tribe of Yotvingians, the border between the Monastic State of the Teutonic Order and Lithuania moved eastwards. As a result, the fortress of Waldau ceased to serve a defensive role. In 1457 the old building was converted into a residential castle, which from then on served as a summer residence of the Grand Master of the Teutonic Order. When the Order was secularized in 1525, the castle turned into a seat for the administrative authorities in the district of Waldau. In 1858 an agricultural school was established in the castle. Afterwards the castle was completely redesigned and changed into a popular school for teachers.
The history of Waldau Castle contains one event which, on the initiative of local people, was commemorated in 1997 by placing a plaque on the walls of the castle. On 17th (27th) May 1697, the castle hosted Russian emissaries, headed by Admiral Franc Jakovlewitz Lefort (1656 - 1699). The Tsar's chronicler wrote on that day: 'Tsar Peter I arrived on this day to enquire about the well being of the emissaries and to finally confirm the meeting ceremony with Kurfürst (The Prince Elector of the German Reich). In the evening, Tsar Peter I left for Königsburg and the Russian emissaries set off from Waldau early morning the next day.'
Today the castle in Nizovye, despite its old age, makes a great impression on the visitors. Parts of the former castle outbuildings have remained until today and the castle itself still houses an agricultural school.References:
Roman Walls of Lugo are an exceptional architectural, archaeological and constructive legacy of Roman engineering, dating from the 3rd and 4th centuries AD. The Walls are built of internal and external stone facings of slate with some granite, with a core filling of a conglomerate of slate slabs and worked stone pieces from Roman buildings, interlocked with lime mortar.
Their total length of 2117 m in the shape of an oblong rectangle occupies an area of 1.68 ha. Their height varies between 8 and 10 m, with a width of 4.2 m, reaching 7 m in some specific points. The walls still contain 85 external towers, 10 gates (five of which are original and five that were opened in modern times), four staircases and two ramps providing access to the walkway along the top of the walls, one of which is internal and the other external. Each tower contained access stairs leading from the intervallum to the wall walk of town wall, of which a total of 21 have been discovered to date.
The defences of Lugo are the most complete and best preserved example of Roman military architecture in the Western Roman Empire.
Despite the renovation work carried out, the walls conserve their original layout and the construction features associated with their defensive purpose, with walls, battlements, towers, fortifications, both modern and original gates and stairways, and a moat.
Since they were built, the walls have defined the layout and growth of the city, which was declared a Historical-Artistic Ensemble in 1973, forming a part of it and becoming an emblematic structure that can be freely accessed to walk along. The local inhabitants and visitors alike have used them as an area for enjoyment and as a part of urban life for centuries.
The fortifications were added to UNESCO"s World Heritage List in late 2000 and are a popular tourist attraction.