In 1325, the Teutonic Knights built a castle called 'Yladia' or 'Ilaw', later known as 'Preussisch Eylau', in the center of the Old Prussian region Natangia. Ylow is the Old Prussian term for mud or swamp. The settlement nearby developed slowly, but in 1348 the Teutonic Order gave the privilege to establish twelve pubs at the surrounding area of the castle. Even though the village had only a few inhabitants, due to its central position it was often used as meeting place for different officials of the Order. In 1427 e.g. the Eylau County Law (Eylauer Landesordnung) was published by the Order.
Throughout the Thirteen Years' War the castle was besieged on May 24, 1455 by troops of the Prussian Confederation under the command of Remschel von Krixen, but the garrison defeated these troops. Also throughout the Horsemen's War in 1520 the castle was unsuccessfully besieged by troops of the Polish Kingdom, which caused a devastation of the village itself.References:
The Château Comtal (Count’s Castle) is a medieval castle within the Cité of Carcassonne, the largest city in Europe with its city walls still intact. The Château Comtal has a strong claim to be called a 'Cathar Castle'. When the Catholic Crusader army arrived in 1209 they first attacked Raymond-Roger Trencavel's castrum at Bèziers and then moved on to his main stronghold at Carcassonne.
The castle with rectangular shape is separated from the city by a deep ditch and defended by two barbicans. There are six towers curtain walls.
The castle was restored in 1853 by the architect Eugène Viollet-le-Duc. It was added to the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites in 1997.